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Total Plants: 134
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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Juglans nigra Essential Oil -- 28000.0 1.4 *
Perilla frutescens Leaf Essent. Oil -- 16000.0 0.7 Kang, R., Helms, R., Stout, M.J., Jaber, H., Chen, Z., and Nakatsu, T. 1992. Antimicrobial Activity of the Volatile Constituents of Perilla frutescens and Its Synergistic Effects with Polygodial. J. Agric. Food Chem., 40: 2328-2330.
Aspalathus linearis Leaf Essent. Oil -- 15900.0 0.7 *
Aesculus hippocastanum Flower Essent. Oil -- 11000.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Prunus dulcis Seed -- 8200.0 *
Cinnamomum verum Leaf Essent. Oil -- 7000.0 -1.4 *
Camellia sinensis Shoot 2100.0 2300.0 5.5 *
Cistus ladaniferus Leaf 28.0 1960.0 2.6 *
Psidium guajava Fruit -- 1000.0 1.7 *
Zea mays Silk Essent. Oil -- 1000.0 *
Ocimum basilicum Essential Oil -- 700.0 -0.7 *
Prunus laurocerasus Leaf 413.0 456.0 0.2 *
Aniba rosaeodora Essential Oil -- 300.0 -0.7 *
Carica papaya Fruit -- 300.0 -0.1 *
Eucalyptus saligna Shoot -- 280.0 0.5 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Umbellularia californica Plant 70.0 280.0 1.5 *
Acinos suaveolens Shoot -- 200.0 0.3 Jim Duke's personal files.
Agastache foeniculum Plant 1.0 135.0 0.1 Mazza, G. and Kiehn, F.A. 1992. Essential Oil of Agastache foeniculum, A Potential Source of Methyl Chavicol. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 295-299.
Cinnamomum verum Plant 26.0 104.0 -0.3 *
Cinnamomum verum Bark 26.0 104.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Eucalyptus punctata Shoot -- 80.0 -0.0 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Ephedra sinica Shoot -- 15.0 -0.2 *
Elsholtzia blanda Shoot -- 13.0 -0.2 Bestman, H.J., Rauscher, J., Vostrowsky O., Pant, A.K., Dev. V., Perihar, R. and Mathela, C.S. 1992. Constituents of the Essential Oil of Elsholtsia blanda Benth. (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oils Res. 4: 121-124
Trifolium pratense Flower -- 12.0 1.0 Buchnauer,G.,Jirovetz,L.,Nikiforov,A.1996.Comparative Investigation of Essential Clover Flower Oils from Austria Using Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection,Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectometry,and Gas Chrom.-Olfactometry.J.Agrc.Food Chem.44:1827-8
Prunus cerasus Fruit -- 3.0 -0.8 *
Hyacinthus orientalis Flower 0.16 2.3 -1.0 *
Rheum palmatum Rhizome -- 1.5 *
Leonurus cardiaca Plant -- 1.0 -1.3 *
Ficus carica Fruit -- 1.0 -0.8 *
Peumus boldus Leaf -- 1.0 -0.5 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Callicarpa americana Leaf -- 0.55 -0.5 *
Eucalyptus maculata Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus albens Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus camaldulensis Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus maideni Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Ocimum gratissimum Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Vostrowsky, O., Garbe, W., Bestmann, H.J. and Maia, J.G.S. 1990. Essential Oil of Alfavaca, Ocimum gratissimum, from Brazilian Amazon. Zeitschr. Naturforschung 45(C): 1073-6.
Eucalyptus siderophloia Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus melliodora Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus sideroxylon Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus moluccana Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Murraya koenigii Leaf -- 0.1 -0.5 *
Eucalyptus citriodora Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus occidentalis Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus astringens Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus cladocalyx Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Carthamus tinctorius Bud -- 0.1 *
Eucalyptus globulus Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus botryoides Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus oviformis Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus blakelyi Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus dealbata Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus tereticornis Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus bosistoana Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus diversicolor Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus polyanthemos Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Carthamus tinctorius Leaf -- 0.04 -0.5 *
Brassica oleracea Stem -- 0.02 *
Micromeria fruticosa Shoot -- -- -0.2 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Micromeria fruticosa Shoot -- -- -0.2 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Elsholtzia polystachya Leaf -- -- -0.5 Mathela,C.S., Melkani,A.B., Bisht,J.C., Pant,A.K., Bestmann,H.J., Erler,J., Kobold,U., Rauscher,J. and Vostrowsky,O. 1992. Chemical Varieties of Essential Oils from Elsholtzia polystachya from Two Different Locations in India. Planta Medica 58: 376-379.
Elsholtzia polystachya Leaf -- -- -0.5 Mathela,C.S., Melkani,A.B., Bisht,J.C., Pant,A.K., Bestmann,H.J., Erler,J., Kobold,U., Rauscher,J. and Vostrowsky,O. 1992. Chemical Varieties of Essential Oils from Elsholtzia polystachya from Two Different Locations in India. Planta Medica 58: 376-379.
Origanum onites Shoot -- -- -0.2 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Thymus capitatus Shoot -- -- -0.2 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Zea mays Husk Essent. Oil -- -- *
Triticum aestivum Shoot -- -- *
Cinnamomum verum Bark Essent. Oil -- -- *
Cinnamomum verum Stem Bark -- -- *
Cinnamomum verum Essential Oil -- -- *
Ligustrum japonicum Flower -- -- *
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- -- Indian Perfumer, 35: 51.
Cymbopogon winterianus Plant -- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Glycyrrhiza glabra Root Essent. Oil -- -- *
Hibiscus sabdariffa Fruit -- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Chrysanthemum parthenium Shoot -- -- Hendriks, H., Bos, R., and Woerdenbag, H. J. 1996. The Essential Oil of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz-Bip. Flavor and Fragrance Journal 11(6): 367-71.
Vaccinium myrtillus Fruit Juice -- -- *
Robinia pseudoacacia Flower -- -- *
Myroxylon balsamum Plant -- -- *
Citrullus lanatus Fruit Juice -- -- *
Syzygium aromaticum Flower -- -- *
Cnicus benedictus Shoot -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Zingiber officinale Rhizome -- -- *
Syzygium aromaticum Fruit -- -- *
Acacia farnesiana Flower -- -- Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
Acacia farnesiana Plant -- -- Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
Capsicum annuum Fruit -- -- *
Jasminum officinale Flower -- -- *
Lycopersicon esculentum Fruit -- -- *
Vaccinium macrocarpon Fruit -- -- *
Melaleuca viridiflora Leaf -- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Cananga odorata Flower -- -- *
Arctium lappa Root -- -- *
Salvia sclarea Plant -- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Mentha spicata Leaf -- -- Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Ribes nigrum Fruit -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Zea mays Shoot -- -- *
Perilla frutescens Shoot Essent. Oil -- -- Nguyen, X. D., La, D. M., Lu'u, D. C., Leclercq, P. A. 1995. Essential Oil Constituents from the Aerial Parts of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton. J. Essent. Oil Res., 7(4): 429-432.
Tanacetum parthenium Shoot -- -- Hendriks, H., Bos, R., and Woerdenbag, H. J. 1996. The Essential Oil of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz-Bip. Flavor and Fragrance Journal 11(6): 367-71.
Prunus serotina Bark -- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Styrax benzoin Plant -- -- *
Mentha spicata Essential Oil -- -- *
Chrysanthemum x morifolium Flower -- -- Wealth of India.
Cinnamomum verum Leaf -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Camellia sinensis Leaf -- -- *
Phaseolus vulgaris Stem Essent. Oil -- -- *
Melissa officinalis Tissue Culture -- -- Gbolade, A.A. and Lockwood, G.B. 1991. The Constituents of Melissa officinalis L. Cultures. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 111-114.
Avena sativa Seed -- -- *
Melaleuca leucadendra Essential Oil -- -- *
Morus alba Plant -- -- *
Petiveria alliacea Root -- -- Tramil
Glycyrrhiza glabra Rhizome Essent. Oil -- -- *
Glycyrrhiza glabra Root -- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Laurus nobilis Leaf -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Rubus idaeus Plant -- -- *
Narcissus tazetta Flower -- -- *
Panax ginseng Shoot -- -- *
Sambucus nigra Plant -- -- *
Sambucus nigra Flower Essent. Oil -- -- *
Eruca sativa Hs -- -- *
Sambucus nigra Leaf Essent. Oil -- -- *
Eriobotrya japonica Leaf -- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Prunus persica Fruit -- -- *
Vaccinium corymbosum Fruit Juice -- -- *
Prunus persica Seed -- -- *
Petroselinum crispum Leaf -- -- *
Cucumis melo Petiole -- -- *
Cinnamomum aromaticum Bark -- -- *
Iris x germanica Rhizome -- -- *
Rosa damascena Essential Oil -- -- *
Anacardium occidentale Fruit -- -- *
Juglans nigra Fruit -- -- *
Pogostemon cablin Plant -- -- *
Syringa vulgaris Flower -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Capsicum frutescens Fruit -- -- *
Vanilla planifolia Fruit -- -- *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.