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Total Plants: 134
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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Camellia sinensis Shoot 2100.0 2300.0 5.5 *
Prunus laurocerasus Leaf 413.0 456.0 0.2 *
Umbellularia californica Plant 70.0 280.0 1.5 *
Cistus ladaniferus Leaf 28.0 1960.0 2.6 *
Cinnamomum verum Plant 26.0 104.0 -0.3 *
Cinnamomum verum Bark 26.0 104.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Agastache foeniculum Plant 1.0 135.0 0.1 Mazza, G. and Kiehn, F.A. 1992. Essential Oil of Agastache foeniculum, A Potential Source of Methyl Chavicol. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 295-299.
Hyacinthus orientalis Flower 0.16 2.3 -1.0 *
Zea mays Husk Essent. Oil -- -- *
Triticum aestivum Shoot -- -- *
Eucalyptus punctata Shoot -- 80.0 -0.0 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus maculata Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Micromeria fruticosa Shoot -- -- -0.2 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Micromeria fruticosa Shoot -- -- -0.2 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Cinnamomum verum Bark Essent. Oil -- -- *
Cinnamomum verum Leaf Essent. Oil -- 7000.0 -1.4 *
Cinnamomum verum Stem Bark -- -- *
Cinnamomum verum Essential Oil -- -- *
Elsholtzia polystachya Leaf -- -- -0.5 Mathela,C.S., Melkani,A.B., Bisht,J.C., Pant,A.K., Bestmann,H.J., Erler,J., Kobold,U., Rauscher,J. and Vostrowsky,O. 1992. Chemical Varieties of Essential Oils from Elsholtzia polystachya from Two Different Locations in India. Planta Medica 58: 376-379.
Eucalyptus albens Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Rheum palmatum Rhizome -- 1.5 *
Elsholtzia polystachya Leaf -- -- -0.5 Mathela,C.S., Melkani,A.B., Bisht,J.C., Pant,A.K., Bestmann,H.J., Erler,J., Kobold,U., Rauscher,J. and Vostrowsky,O. 1992. Chemical Varieties of Essential Oils from Elsholtzia polystachya from Two Different Locations in India. Planta Medica 58: 376-379.
Ocimum basilicum Essential Oil -- 700.0 -0.7 *
Eucalyptus camaldulensis Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Ligustrum japonicum Flower -- -- *
Aspalathus linearis Leaf Essent. Oil -- 15900.0 0.7 *
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- -- Indian Perfumer, 35: 51.
Cymbopogon winterianus Plant -- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Glycyrrhiza glabra Root Essent. Oil -- -- *
Hibiscus sabdariffa Fruit -- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Chrysanthemum parthenium Shoot -- -- Hendriks, H., Bos, R., and Woerdenbag, H. J. 1996. The Essential Oil of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz-Bip. Flavor and Fragrance Journal 11(6): 367-71.
Eucalyptus maideni Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Prunus cerasus Fruit -- 3.0 -0.8 *
Vaccinium myrtillus Fruit Juice -- -- *
Psidium guajava Fruit -- 1000.0 1.7 *
Eucalyptus saligna Shoot -- 280.0 0.5 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Robinia pseudoacacia Flower -- -- *
Ocimum gratissimum Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Vostrowsky, O., Garbe, W., Bestmann, H.J. and Maia, J.G.S. 1990. Essential Oil of Alfavaca, Ocimum gratissimum, from Brazilian Amazon. Zeitschr. Naturforschung 45(C): 1073-6.
Prunus dulcis Seed -- 8200.0 *
Elsholtzia blanda Shoot -- 13.0 -0.2 Bestman, H.J., Rauscher, J., Vostrowsky O., Pant, A.K., Dev. V., Perihar, R. and Mathela, C.S. 1992. Constituents of the Essential Oil of Elsholtsia blanda Benth. (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oils Res. 4: 121-124
Leonurus cardiaca Plant -- 1.0 -1.3 *
Myroxylon balsamum Plant -- -- *
Citrullus lanatus Fruit Juice -- -- *
Syzygium aromaticum Flower -- -- *
Eucalyptus siderophloia Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus melliodora Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Acinos suaveolens Shoot -- 200.0 0.3 Jim Duke's personal files.
Cnicus benedictus Shoot -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Zingiber officinale Rhizome -- -- *
Syzygium aromaticum Fruit -- -- *
Acacia farnesiana Flower -- -- Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
Acacia farnesiana Plant -- -- Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
Callicarpa americana Leaf -- 0.55 -0.5 *
Capsicum annuum Fruit -- -- *
Jasminum officinale Flower -- -- *
Lycopersicon esculentum Fruit -- -- *
Vaccinium macrocarpon Fruit -- -- *
Melaleuca viridiflora Leaf -- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Cananga odorata Flower -- -- *
Eucalyptus sideroxylon Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus moluccana Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Origanum onites Shoot -- -- -0.2 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Murraya koenigii Leaf -- 0.1 -0.5 *
Arctium lappa Root -- -- *
Thymus capitatus Shoot -- -- -0.2 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Salvia sclarea Plant -- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Eucalyptus citriodora Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Mentha spicata Leaf -- -- Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Ribes nigrum Fruit -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Brassica oleracea Stem -- 0.02 *
Zea mays Shoot -- -- *
Eucalyptus occidentalis Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus astringens Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Perilla frutescens Shoot Essent. Oil -- -- Nguyen, X. D., La, D. M., Lu'u, D. C., Leclercq, P. A. 1995. Essential Oil Constituents from the Aerial Parts of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton. J. Essent. Oil Res., 7(4): 429-432.
Perilla frutescens Leaf Essent. Oil -- 16000.0 0.7 Kang, R., Helms, R., Stout, M.J., Jaber, H., Chen, Z., and Nakatsu, T. 1992. Antimicrobial Activity of the Volatile Constituents of Perilla frutescens and Its Synergistic Effects with Polygodial. J. Agric. Food Chem., 40: 2328-2330.
Ficus carica Fruit -- 1.0 -0.8 *
Tanacetum parthenium Shoot -- -- Hendriks, H., Bos, R., and Woerdenbag, H. J. 1996. The Essential Oil of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz-Bip. Flavor and Fragrance Journal 11(6): 367-71.
Aniba rosaeodora Essential Oil -- 300.0 -0.7 *
Prunus serotina Bark -- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Eucalyptus cladocalyx Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Styrax benzoin Plant -- -- *
Mentha spicata Essential Oil -- -- *
Chrysanthemum x morifolium Flower -- -- Wealth of India.
Cinnamomum verum Leaf -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Carthamus tinctorius Bud -- 0.1 *
Camellia sinensis Leaf -- -- *
Phaseolus vulgaris Stem Essent. Oil -- -- *
Carthamus tinctorius Leaf -- 0.04 -0.5 *
Melissa officinalis Tissue Culture -- -- Gbolade, A.A. and Lockwood, G.B. 1991. The Constituents of Melissa officinalis L. Cultures. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 111-114.
Avena sativa Seed -- -- *
Eucalyptus globulus Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus botryoides Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus oviformis Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Melaleuca leucadendra Essential Oil -- -- *
Eucalyptus blakelyi Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Carica papaya Fruit -- 300.0 -0.1 *
Morus alba Plant -- -- *
Aesculus hippocastanum Flower Essent. Oil -- 11000.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Petiveria alliacea Root -- -- Tramil
Ephedra sinica Shoot -- 15.0 -0.2 *
Eucalyptus dealbata Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Glycyrrhiza glabra Rhizome Essent. Oil -- -- *
Glycyrrhiza glabra Root -- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Laurus nobilis Leaf -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Rubus idaeus Plant -- -- *
Zea mays Silk Essent. Oil -- 1000.0 *
Narcissus tazetta Flower -- -- *
Eucalyptus tereticornis Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Panax ginseng Shoot -- -- *
Sambucus nigra Plant -- -- *
Eucalyptus bosistoana Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Sambucus nigra Flower Essent. Oil -- -- *
Eruca sativa Hs -- -- *
Sambucus nigra Leaf Essent. Oil -- -- *
Eriobotrya japonica Leaf -- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Prunus persica Fruit -- -- *
Vaccinium corymbosum Fruit Juice -- -- *
Prunus persica Seed -- -- *
Trifolium pratense Flower -- 12.0 1.0 Buchnauer,G.,Jirovetz,L.,Nikiforov,A.1996.Comparative Investigation of Essential Clover Flower Oils from Austria Using Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection,Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectometry,and Gas Chrom.-Olfactometry.J.Agrc.Food Chem.44:1827-8
Peumus boldus Leaf -- 1.0 -0.5 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Petroselinum crispum Leaf -- -- *
Cucumis melo Petiole -- -- *
Eucalyptus diversicolor Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Cinnamomum aromaticum Bark -- -- *
Iris x germanica Rhizome -- -- *
Eucalyptus polyanthemos Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Rosa damascena Essential Oil -- -- *
Anacardium occidentale Fruit -- -- *
Juglans nigra Fruit -- -- *
Juglans nigra Essential Oil -- 28000.0 1.4 *
Pogostemon cablin Plant -- -- *
Syringa vulgaris Flower -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Capsicum frutescens Fruit -- -- *
Vanilla planifolia Fruit -- -- *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.