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Total Plants: 134
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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Acacia farnesiana Plant -- -- Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
Acacia farnesiana Flower -- -- Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
Acinos suaveolens Shoot -- 200.0 0.3 Jim Duke's personal files.
Aesculus hippocastanum Flower Essent. Oil -- 11000.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Agastache foeniculum Plant 1.0 135.0 0.1 Mazza, G. and Kiehn, F.A. 1992. Essential Oil of Agastache foeniculum, A Potential Source of Methyl Chavicol. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 295-299.
Anacardium occidentale Fruit -- -- *
Aniba rosaeodora Essential Oil -- 300.0 -0.7 *
Arctium lappa Root -- -- *
Aspalathus linearis Leaf Essent. Oil -- 15900.0 0.7 *
Avena sativa Seed -- -- *
Brassica oleracea Stem -- 0.02 *
Callicarpa americana Leaf -- 0.55 -0.5 *
Camellia sinensis Leaf -- -- *
Camellia sinensis Shoot 2100.0 2300.0 5.5 *
Cananga odorata Flower -- -- *
Capsicum frutescens Fruit -- -- *
Capsicum annuum Fruit -- -- *
Carica papaya Fruit -- 300.0 -0.1 *
Carthamus tinctorius Leaf -- 0.04 -0.5 *
Carthamus tinctorius Bud -- 0.1 *
Chrysanthemum x morifolium Flower -- -- Wealth of India.
Chrysanthemum parthenium Shoot -- -- Hendriks, H., Bos, R., and Woerdenbag, H. J. 1996. The Essential Oil of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz-Bip. Flavor and Fragrance Journal 11(6): 367-71.
Cinnamomum verum Leaf Essent. Oil -- 7000.0 -1.4 *
Cinnamomum aromaticum Bark -- -- *
Cinnamomum verum Essential Oil -- -- *
Cinnamomum verum Bark Essent. Oil -- -- *
Cinnamomum verum Leaf -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Cinnamomum verum Bark 26.0 104.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Cinnamomum verum Stem Bark -- -- *
Cinnamomum verum Plant 26.0 104.0 -0.3 *
Cistus ladaniferus Leaf 28.0 1960.0 2.6 *
Citrullus lanatus Fruit Juice -- -- *
Cnicus benedictus Shoot -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Cucumis melo Petiole -- -- *
Cymbopogon winterianus Plant -- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Elsholtzia polystachya Leaf -- -- -0.5 Mathela,C.S., Melkani,A.B., Bisht,J.C., Pant,A.K., Bestmann,H.J., Erler,J., Kobold,U., Rauscher,J. and Vostrowsky,O. 1992. Chemical Varieties of Essential Oils from Elsholtzia polystachya from Two Different Locations in India. Planta Medica 58: 376-379.
Elsholtzia polystachya Leaf -- -- -0.5 Mathela,C.S., Melkani,A.B., Bisht,J.C., Pant,A.K., Bestmann,H.J., Erler,J., Kobold,U., Rauscher,J. and Vostrowsky,O. 1992. Chemical Varieties of Essential Oils from Elsholtzia polystachya from Two Different Locations in India. Planta Medica 58: 376-379.
Elsholtzia blanda Shoot -- 13.0 -0.2 Bestman, H.J., Rauscher, J., Vostrowsky O., Pant, A.K., Dev. V., Perihar, R. and Mathela, C.S. 1992. Constituents of the Essential Oil of Elsholtsia blanda Benth. (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oils Res. 4: 121-124
Ephedra sinica Shoot -- 15.0 -0.2 *
Eriobotrya japonica Leaf -- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Eruca sativa Hs -- -- *
Eucalyptus siderophloia Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus polyanthemos Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus camaldulensis Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus blakelyi Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus moluccana Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus maculata Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus dealbata Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus tereticornis Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus saligna Shoot -- 280.0 0.5 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus oviformis Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus botryoides Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus astringens Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus melliodora Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus globulus Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus cladocalyx Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus sideroxylon Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus citriodora Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus punctata Shoot -- 80.0 -0.0 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus occidentalis Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus bosistoana Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus albens Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus maideni Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus diversicolor Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Ficus carica Fruit -- 1.0 -0.8 *
Glycyrrhiza glabra Rhizome Essent. Oil -- -- *
Glycyrrhiza glabra Root Essent. Oil -- -- *
Glycyrrhiza glabra Root -- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Hibiscus sabdariffa Fruit -- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Hyacinthus orientalis Flower 0.16 2.3 -1.0 *
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- -- Indian Perfumer, 35: 51.
Iris x germanica Rhizome -- -- *
Jasminum officinale Flower -- -- *
Juglans nigra Essential Oil -- 28000.0 1.4 *
Juglans nigra Fruit -- -- *
Laurus nobilis Leaf -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Leonurus cardiaca Plant -- 1.0 -1.3 *
Ligustrum japonicum Flower -- -- *
Lycopersicon esculentum Fruit -- -- *
Melaleuca leucadendra Essential Oil -- -- *
Melaleuca viridiflora Leaf -- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Melissa officinalis Tissue Culture -- -- Gbolade, A.A. and Lockwood, G.B. 1991. The Constituents of Melissa officinalis L. Cultures. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 111-114.
Mentha spicata Essential Oil -- -- *
Mentha spicata Leaf -- -- Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Micromeria fruticosa Shoot -- -- -0.2 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Micromeria fruticosa Shoot -- -- -0.2 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Morus alba Plant -- -- *
Murraya koenigii Leaf -- 0.1 -0.5 *
Myroxylon balsamum Plant -- -- *
Narcissus tazetta Flower -- -- *
Ocimum gratissimum Shoot -- 0.1 -0.2 Vostrowsky, O., Garbe, W., Bestmann, H.J. and Maia, J.G.S. 1990. Essential Oil of Alfavaca, Ocimum gratissimum, from Brazilian Amazon. Zeitschr. Naturforschung 45(C): 1073-6.
Ocimum basilicum Essential Oil -- 700.0 -0.7 *
Origanum onites Shoot -- -- -0.2 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Panax ginseng Shoot -- -- *
Perilla frutescens Shoot Essent. Oil -- -- Nguyen, X. D., La, D. M., Lu'u, D. C., Leclercq, P. A. 1995. Essential Oil Constituents from the Aerial Parts of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton. J. Essent. Oil Res., 7(4): 429-432.
Perilla frutescens Leaf Essent. Oil -- 16000.0 0.7 Kang, R., Helms, R., Stout, M.J., Jaber, H., Chen, Z., and Nakatsu, T. 1992. Antimicrobial Activity of the Volatile Constituents of Perilla frutescens and Its Synergistic Effects with Polygodial. J. Agric. Food Chem., 40: 2328-2330.
Petiveria alliacea Root -- -- Tramil
Petroselinum crispum Leaf -- -- *
Peumus boldus Leaf -- 1.0 -0.5 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Phaseolus vulgaris Stem Essent. Oil -- -- *
Pogostemon cablin Plant -- -- *
Prunus persica Fruit -- -- *
Prunus cerasus Fruit -- 3.0 -0.8 *
Prunus serotina Bark -- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Prunus laurocerasus Leaf 413.0 456.0 0.2 *
Prunus persica Seed -- -- *
Prunus dulcis Seed -- 8200.0 *
Psidium guajava Fruit -- 1000.0 1.7 *
Rheum palmatum Rhizome -- 1.5 *
Ribes nigrum Fruit -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Robinia pseudoacacia Flower -- -- *
Rosa damascena Essential Oil -- -- *
Rubus idaeus Plant -- -- *
Salvia sclarea Plant -- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Sambucus nigra Flower Essent. Oil -- -- *
Sambucus nigra Plant -- -- *
Sambucus nigra Leaf Essent. Oil -- -- *
Styrax benzoin Plant -- -- *
Syringa vulgaris Flower -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Syzygium aromaticum Flower -- -- *
Syzygium aromaticum Fruit -- -- *
Tanacetum parthenium Shoot -- -- Hendriks, H., Bos, R., and Woerdenbag, H. J. 1996. The Essential Oil of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz-Bip. Flavor and Fragrance Journal 11(6): 367-71.
Thymus capitatus Shoot -- -- -0.2 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Trifolium pratense Flower -- 12.0 1.0 Buchnauer,G.,Jirovetz,L.,Nikiforov,A.1996.Comparative Investigation of Essential Clover Flower Oils from Austria Using Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection,Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectometry,and Gas Chrom.-Olfactometry.J.Agrc.Food Chem.44:1827-8
Triticum aestivum Shoot -- -- *
Umbellularia californica Plant 70.0 280.0 1.5 *
Vaccinium myrtillus Fruit Juice -- -- *
Vaccinium corymbosum Fruit Juice -- -- *
Vaccinium macrocarpon Fruit -- -- *
Vanilla planifolia Fruit -- -- *
Zea mays Shoot -- -- *
Zea mays Silk Essent. Oil -- 1000.0 *
Zea mays Husk Essent. Oil -- -- *
Zingiber officinale Rhizome -- -- *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.