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Total Plants: 43
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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Pimpinella anisum Seed Essent. Oil 800000.0 900000.0 1.0 *
Foeniculum vulgare Seed 64800.0 800000.0 *
Foeniculum vulgare Essential Oil -- 692000.0 0.8 Jim Duke's personal files.
Foeniculum vulgare Seed Essent. Oil -- 680000.0 -1.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Tagetes filifolia Essential Oil -- 620000.0 0.6 Abburraa, R. E., et al. 1990. Study of the Essential Oil of Tagetes filifolia (Asteraceae) as Potential Producer of Estragole and Anethole. An Asoc Quim Argent 78 3: 153-156. Fac Cience Exactas Fis Nat Univ Nac Cordoba Cordoba, Argentina.
Canarium indicum Plant 34000.0 85000.0 *
Agastache rugosa Essential Oil -- 20000.0 -1.4 Jim Duke's personal files.
Persea americana Leaf 250.0 1555.0 2.2 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Teucrium cyprium Leaf -- 90.0 -0.3 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Sideritis scardica Shoot -- 80.0 Menkovic, N., et al. 1991. The Essential Oil of Sideritis scardica. Pl. Med. 57. Suppl. 2. pp. A137-A132.
Teucrium kotschyanum Leaf -- 18.0 -0.5 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Teucrium micropodioides Leaf -- 12.0 -0.5 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Rheum palmatum Rhizome -- 1.5 *
Glycyrrhiza glabra Root -- 1.0 *
Mentha x piperita Leaf 0.001 0.01 -0.5 Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Teucrium divaricatum Leaf -- -- -0.5 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Illicium verum Plant -- -- Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Ocimum basilicum Essential Oil -- -- *
Foeniculum vulgare Plant -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Sassafras albidum Root -- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.