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Total Plants: 609
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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Vetiveria zizanioides Root -- 15.0 -0.8 *
Vitex agnus-castus Fruit Essent. Oil -- 6.6 -0.8 Jim Duke's personal files.
Vitex agnus-castus Leaf -- 21.0 -0.2 Ekundayo, O., Laakso, I., Holopainen, M., Hiltunen, R., Oguntimein, B., and Kauppinen, V. 1990. The Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Leaf Oil of Vitex agnus-castus L. J. Essential Oil Research, 2: 115-119.
Vitex agnus-castus Fruit 21.0 4000.0 0.3 *
Vitex agnus-castus Flower -- -- *
Vitex agnus-castus Leaf Essent. Oil -- 43200.0 -0.5 Jim Duke's personal files.
Zea mays Husk Essent. Oil -- -- *
Zingiber officinale Rhizome Essent. Oil -- 39000.0 1.4 *
Zingiber officinale Rhizome -- 720.0 1.1 *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.