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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Abies sachalinensis Branches 2400.0 2700.0 *
Abies alba Plant 590.0 826.0 0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Abies balsamea Plant 545.0 5050.0 3.1 *
Abies spectabilis Leaf 150.0 515.0 -0.2 *
Abies alba Resin, Exudate, Sap -- -- *
Achillea millefolium Leaf 1.0 1000.0 -0.2 *
Acinos alpinus Shoot -- 0.5 -0.1 Velasco-Negueruela,A., Perez-Alonso,M.J., Jiminez,S.M. and Garcia,F.M. 1993. The Volatile Constituents of Acinus alpinus (L.) Moench ssp. meridionalis (Nyman). P.W. Ball Growing in Spain. Flav. & Frag. J. 8:127-130.)
Acinos alpinus Shoot -- 0.5 -0.1 Velasco-Negueruela,A., Perez-Alonso,M.J., Jiminez,S.M. and Garcia,F.M. 1993. The Volatile Constituents of Acinus alpinus (L.) Moench ssp. meridionalis (Nyman). P.W. Ball Growing in Spain. Flav. & Frag. J. 8:127-130.)
Acinos suaveolens Shoot -- 9500.0 0.8 Jim Duke's personal files.
Acorus calamus Rhizome -- 280.0 -1.3 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Aesculus hippocastanum Flower Essent. Oil -- 177000.0 1.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Agastache urticifolia Plant -- 32.0 -0.5 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Agastache rugosa Tissue Culture -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Agastache nepetoides Plant -- 20.0 -0.5 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Agastache foeniculum Plant 1.0 35.0 -0.5 *
Agastache rugosa Essential Oil -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Agathosma betulina Leaf Essent. Oil -- -- *
Agathosma betulina Leaf -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Ageratum conyzoides Plant 0.8 6.5 -0.5 *
Ageratum conyzoides Shoot -- 420.0 -0.1 R. Vera, (1993); Chemical composition of the essential oil Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae) from Reunion, Flavour Fragr. J., Vol.8, 257-260.
Aloysia citrodora Plant 1.0 7.0 -0.5 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Alpinia galanga Leaf Essent. Oil -- 11600.0 -0.7 *
Alpinia galanga Rhizome 5.0 555.0 0.2 *
Alpinia galanga Rhizome Essent. Oil -- 11600.0 -0.5 *
Alpinia galanga Leaf -- 900.0 -0.2 *
Amomum xanthioides Seed -- -- *
Amomum compactum Seed -- 960.0 -0.4 Duke, J. A. and duCellier, J. L. 1993. CRC Handbook of Alternative Cash Crops. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL 33431. 536 pp. US $312.50.
Anethum graveolens Shoot Essent. Oil 17500.0 31700.0 2.0 *
Anethum graveolens Seed 12.0 1001.0 -0.4 *
Anethum graveolens Leaf 25.0 405.0 -0.2 *
Anethum graveolens Essential Oil -- -- *
Anethum graveolens Fruit 24.0 1001.0 -0.5 *
Anethum graveolens Seed Essent. Oil -- -- *
Angelica archangelica Root Essent. Oil -- -- *
Angelica archangelica Fruit -- -- *
Angelica archangelica Seed 170.0 1500.0 -0.3 *
Angelica archangelica Root 35.0 5890.0 2.2 *
Angelica archangelica Seed Essent. Oil -- 149000.0 0.3 *
Angelica sinensis Root -- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Aniba rosaeodora Essential Oil -- -- *
Annona squamosa Plant -- -- *
Apium graveolens Seed Essent. Oil 10000.0 10500.0 -0.7 *
Apium graveolens Root Essent. Oil -- 179000.0 0.8 *
Apium graveolens Leaf Essent. Oil -- 2000.0 -0.7 *
Apium graveolens Seed -- 300.0 -0.5 *
Apium graveolens Stem Essent. Oil -- 14000.0 -1.0 *
Apium graveolens Fruit Essent. Oil -- 10000.0 -0.7 *
Apium graveolens Et 12000.0 14000.0 -1.0 *
Aralia cordata Root -- 475.0 -0.6 *
Artemisia dracunculus Leaf Essent. Oil -- -- *
Artemisia annua Shoot 12.0 7840.0 0.6 *
Artemisia dracunculus Shoot 100.0 1000.0 -0.0 *
Artemisia dracunculus Essential Oil -- 10000.0 -0.5 *
Artemisia vulgaris Plant -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Artemisia capillaris Essential Oil -- -- *
Artemisia salsoloides Shoot -- 3300.0 0.2 V. Kaul, P. Weyerstahl, H. Wahlberg, H. Marschall, (1992); Volatile constituents of the essential oil and the absolute of Aremisia salsoloides Willd. from Ladakh,Flavour and Fragrance journal, Vol.7, 299-305.
Artemisia dracunculus Root Essent. Oil -- -- *
Artemisia herba-alba Plant -- -- *
Artemisia annua Leaf 1345.0 3760.0 0.0 *
Asiasarum heterotropoides Root -- -- *
Ballota nigra Plant -- 3.0 -0.5 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Barosma betulina Leaf -- -- *
Boswellia sacra Resin, Exudate, Sap 1050.0 71600.0 -1.0 *
Boswellia serrata Resin, Exudate, Sap -- 9920.0 -1.2 Sabinsa: A series of well documented proprietary PR booklets, e.g.Sabinsa Corps. 1998. Bronchial Asthma - Its etiology and control with traditional herbal extracts. Sabinsa Corporation. Piscataway, NJ. 49 pp.
Boswellia sacra Essential Oil -- 410000.0 3.0 Wang, W., Zhu, Y. X., Liu, L. Z., Ling, D. K., Qin, X. L., Tian, J. G. 1993. Analysis of the Chemical Constitutents of Essential Oil of Boswellia carterii Birdwood from Somali. Yaowu Fenxi Zazhi 13 3: 170-173.
Boswellia serrata Essential Oil -- -- *
Boswellia sacra Resin Essent. Oil -- 35000.0 Abdel Wahab, S. M., Aboutabl, E. A., El-Zalabani, S. M., Fouad, H. A., De Pooter, H. L., El-Fallaha, B. 1987. The Essential Oil of Olibanum. Plant Med. 53 (4): 382-384.
Calamintha nepeta Leaf -- 90.0 -0.2 Akgul, A., De Pooter, H.L., and De Buyck, L.F. 1991. The Essential Oils of Calamintha nepeta subsp. glandulosa and Ziziphora clinopodioides from Turkey. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 7-10.
Calamintha nepeta Plant -- 40.0 -0.5 J. Ethnopharmacology, 39: 167.
Calamintha nepeta Shoot -- 13.0 -0.1 Kirimer, N., Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T. and Kurkcuoglo, M. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Calamintha nepeta subsp. glandulosa. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4:189-190
Callicarpa americana Leaf -- 28.0 -0.2 *
Camellia sinensis Leaf -- -- *
Canarium indicum Essential Oil 400.0 1000.0 -0.6 *
Capsicum annuum Fruit -- -- *
Carum carvi Plant -- 20.0 -0.5 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Carum carvi Seed 4.0 540.0 -0.4 *
Carum carvi Fruit 42.0 540.0 -0.6 *
Centella asiatica Plant -- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Centella asiatica Shoot -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Centella asiatica Essential Oil -- 2000.0 -0.5 Jim Duke's personal files.
Chamaemelum nobile Plant -- -- *
Chenopodium ambrosioides Plant 440.0 4800.0 2.9 *
Chrysanthemum balsamita Plant -- -- *
Chrysanthemum parthenium Shoot -- 15.0 -0.1 Hendriks, H., Bos, R., and Woerdenbag, H. J. 1996. The Essential Oil of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz-Bip. Flavor and Fragrance Journal 11(6): 367-71.
Chrysanthemum x morifolium Plant 3.0 14.0 -0.5 Wealth of India.
Cinnamomum verum Stem Bark -- -- *
Cinnamomum verum Leaf -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Cinnamomum verum Leaf Essent. Oil -- 2000.0 -0.7 *
Cinnamomum verum Bark 20.0 236.0 1.0 *
Cinnamomum verum Bark Essent. Oil -- 2000.0 *
Cinnamomum camphora Plant -- -- *
Cinnamomum verum Root Bark -- -- *
Cinnamomum aromaticum Plant -- -- *
Cinnamomum aromaticum Bark -- -- Wealth of India.
Cinnamomum camphora Leaf 140.0 280.0 -0.2 *
Cistus ladaniferus Leaf 40.0 31500.0 1.8 *
Citrus sinensis Plant -- -- *
Citrus limon Essential Oil 40.0 500.0 -0.6 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Citrus aurantium Leaf -- 1.0 -0.2 *
Citrus paradisi Pericarp 12.0 47.0 *
Citrus limon Fruit Essent. Oil -- 7000.0 -0.8 Jim Duke's personal files.
Citrus sinensis Fruit 35.0 40.0 -0.7 *
Citrus limon Leaf Essent. Oil 500.0 2000.0 -0.7 Jim Duke's personal files.
Citrus aurantiifolia Fruit 80.0 240.0 -0.7 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Citrus sinensis Fruit Juice -- 0.22 -1.0 *
Citrus limon Petiole -- 90.0 *
Citrus paradisi Fruit -- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Citrus limon Pericarp -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Citrus mitis Fruit Juice -- 5.6 1.0 *
Citrus reticulata Fruit 50.0 55.0 -0.7 *
Citrus limon Pericarp Essent. Oil 5000.0 14000.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Citrus aurantium Plant -- -- *
Citrus paradisi Leaf -- 55.0 -0.2 *
Cleistocalyx fullageri Leaf -- 59488.0 3.6 *
Cleonia lusitanica Leaf 90.0 170.0 -0.2 Perez-Alonso, M., Velasco-Negueruela, A., and Lopez-Saez, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Cleonia lusitanica. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 441-442.
Coleus barbatus Stem Essent. Oil -- 66800.0 1.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Coleus barbatus Leaf Essent. Oil -- 66800.0 -0.4 Jim Duke's personal files.
Coleus barbatus Root Essent. Oil -- 77000.0 -0.4 Jim Duke's personal files.
Collinsonia canadensis Plant -- -- *
Commiphora myrrha Resin, Exudate, Sap -- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Coriandrum sativum Essential Oil -- -- *
Coriandrum sativum Fruit 819.0 13780.0 2.9 *
Coriandrum sativum Seed Essent. Oil 11400.0 52980.0 -0.4 *
Coridothymus capitatus Shoot -- 44.0 -0.1 Lagouri, V., Blekas, G., Tsimidou, M., Kokkini, S., and Boskou, D. 1993. Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils from Oregano Plants Grown Wild in Greece. Z. Lebensm Unters Forsch 197: 20-23.
Crocus sativus Silk Stigma Style -- -- *
Croton eluteria Bark -- -- *
Croton lechleri Plant -- -- Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Cuminum cyminum Seed 9.0 330.0 -0.5 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Cuminum cyminum Fruit 9.0 330.0 -0.6 *
Cuminum cyminum Seed Essent. Oil -- 3000.0 -0.7 *
Cunila origanoides Shoot -- 812.0 -0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Curcuma longa Essential Oil -- 5300.0 -0.5 *
Curcuma longa Leaf 60.0 1440.0 -0.1 *
Curcuma longa Rhizome -- -- *
Curcuma zedoaria Rhizome -- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Curcuma longa Rhizome Essent. Oil -- 5300.0 -0.9 *
Curcuma longa Tuber -- -- *
Cymbopogon nardus Plant 78.0 312.0 -0.3 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Cymbopogon citratus Plant -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Cymbopogon winterianus Plant -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Daucus carota Seed 12.0 1300.0 -0.4 *
Daucus carota Root -- 48.0 -0.8 *
Daucus carota Shoot -- 12.0 -0.1 *
Dictamnus albus Shoot -- 0.7 -0.1 Baser, K.H.C., Kosar, M.Malyer, H. & Ozek, T. 1994. The Essential Oil Composition of Dictamnus albus from Turkey. Planta Med. 60:481-2
Dictamnus albus Shoot -- 0.7 -0.1 Baser, K.H.C., Kosar, M.Malyer, H. & Ozek, T. 1994. The Essential Oil Composition of Dictamnus albus from Turkey. Planta Med. 60:481-2
Dictamnus albus Shoot -- 1.0 -0.1 Baser, K.H.C., Kosar, M.Malyer, H. & Ozek, T. 1994. The Essential Oil Composition of Dictamnus albus from Turkey. Planta Med. 60:481-2
Dracocephalum thymiflora Plant -- 2.0 -0.5 *
Echinacea spp Fruit -- -- Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 253.
Elettaria cardamomum Fruit Essent. Oil 12000.0 16000.0 -0.6 *
Elettaria cardamomum Root Essent. Oil -- 123000.0 0.1 *
Elettaria cardamomum Seed Essent. Oil 6900.0 17000.0 -0.6 *
Elettaria cardamomum Fruit 217.0 3000.0 0.1 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Elsholtzia polystachya Leaf -- 1.2 -0.2 Mathela,C.S., Melkani,A.B., Bisht,J.C., Pant,A.K., Bestmann,H.J., Erler,J., Kobold,U., Rauscher,J. and Vostrowsky,O. 1992. Chemical Varieties of Essential Oils from Elsholtzia polystachya from Two Different Locations in India. Planta Medica 58: 376-379.
Elsholtzia pilosa Shoot -- 7.6 -0.1 *
Elsholtzia blanda Shoot -- 0.4 -0.1 Bestman, H.J., Rauscher, J., Vostrowsky O., Pant, A.K., Dev. V., Perihar, R. and Mathela, C.S. 1992. Constituents of the Essential Oil of Elsholtsia blanda Benth. (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oils Res. 4: 121-124
Elsholtzia polystachya Leaf -- 1.2 -0.2 Mathela,C.S., Melkani,A.B., Bisht,J.C., Pant,A.K., Bestmann,H.J., Erler,J., Kobold,U., Rauscher,J. and Vostrowsky,O. 1992. Chemical Varieties of Essential Oils from Elsholtzia polystachya from Two Different Locations in India. Planta Medica 58: 376-379.
Elsholtzia cristata Shoot -- 0.1 -0.1 Kobold, U., Vostrowsky, O., Bestmann, H.J., Bisht, J.C., Pant, A.K., Melkani, A.B. and Mathela, C.S. 1987. Terpenoids from Elsholtzia Species; II. Constituents of Essential Oil from a New Chemotype of Elsholtzia cristata. Planta Medica 1987: 268-271.
Eryngium foetidum Plant 5.0 25.0 -0.5 *
Eucalyptus bridgesiana Leaf -- 255.0 -0.2 Singh, A. K., Gupta, K. C., & Brophy, J. J. 1991. Volatile Constituents of the Essential Oil of Eucalyptus bridgesiana Growing in India. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 3: 449-450.
Eucalyptus melanophloia Leaf -- 6.0 -0.2 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus nova-anglica Leaf 0.1 1185.0 -0.1 Brophy, J. L., Lassak, E. V., & Boland, D. J. 1992. The Leaf Essential Oils of Eucalyptus nova-anglica. Deane & Maiden. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 29-32.
Eucalyptus odorata Leaf -- 190.0 -0.2 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus bosistoana Shoot -- 1220.0 -0.0 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus intertexta Leaf -- 1920.0 -0.1 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus globulus Fruit Essent. Oil -- 40900.0 -0.3 *
Eucalyptus tetraptera Leaf -- 4355.0 0.1 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Eucalyptus sparsa Leaf -- 2495.0 -0.1 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus grandis Leaf Essent. Oil -- 689000.0 3.0 *
Eucalyptus sideroxylon Shoot -- 300.0 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus punctata Shoot -- 3075.0 0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus oviformis Shoot -- 315.0 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus erythrandra Leaf -- 4970.0 0.1 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Eucalyptus citriodora Leaf 5.0 380.0 -0.2 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Eucalyptus melliodora Shoot -- 3000.0 0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus incrassata Leaf -- 5295.0 0.1 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Eucalyptus dealbata Shoot -- 235.0 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus ceratocorys Leaf -- 3185.0 -0.0 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Eucalyptus ochrophloia Leaf -- 21.0 -0.2 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus brassiana Leaf -- 825.0 -0.2 Singh, A. K., Gupta, K. C., & Brophy, J. J. 1991. Chemical Constituents of the Leaf Essential Oil of Eucalyptus brassiana S. T. Blake. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 3: 45-7.
Eucalyptus blakelyi Shoot -- 0.1 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus viridis Leaf -- 55.0 -0.2 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus angulosa Leaf -- 835.0 -0.2 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Eucalyptus porosa Leaf -- 2100.0 -0.1 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus cuprea Leaf -- 1595.0 -0.1 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus globulus Leaf Essent. Oil 5000.0 260000.0 0.7 *
Eucalyptus populnea Leaf -- 71.0 -0.2 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus citriodora Essential Oil -- -- *
Eucalyptus tereticornis Shoot -- 585.0 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus siderophloia Shoot -- 150.0 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus polyanthemos Shoot -- 135.0 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus occidentalis Shoot -- 1340.0 -0.0 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus maideni Shoot -- 3000.0 0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus dolichorhyncha Leaf -- 1425.0 -0.1 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Eucalyptus globulus Shoot -- 119000.0 11.7 *
Eucalyptus cladocalyx Shoot -- 260.0 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus camaldulensis Shoot -- 410.0 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus behriana Leaf -- 65.0 -0.2 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus fasiculosa Leaf -- 90.0 -0.2 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus botryoides Shoot -- 820.0 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus astringens Shoot -- 4325.0 0.3 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus desquamata Leaf -- 3000.0 -0.0 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus citriodora Leaf Essent. Oil 2900.0 6000.0 -0.7 *
Eucalyptus albens Shoot -- 315.0 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus lansdowneana Leaf -- 420.0 -0.2 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus largisparsa Leaf -- 2495.0 -0.1 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus globulus Essential Oil -- 52000.0 -0.1 *
Eucalyptus stoatei Leaf -- 3290.0 -0.0 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Eucalyptus saligna Shoot -- 370.0 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus paniculata Shoot -- 355.0 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus globulus Leaf 1250.0 8750.0 0.3 *
Eucalyptus moluccana Shoot -- 935.0 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus maculata Shoot -- 7330.0 0.6 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus diversicolor Shoot -- 710.0 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus forrestiana Leaf -- 10110.0 0.4 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Eucalyptus citriodora Shoot -- -- *
Eucalyptus leucoxylon Leaf -- 720.0 -0.2 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Ferula gummosa Plant -- -- *
Ferula assa-foetida Essential Oil -- -- *
Ferula assa-foetida Gum -- 143000.0 *
Ferula assa-foetida Seed Essent. Oil -- 14300.0 -0.6 *
Ficus carica Leaf Essent. Oil -- -- *
Foeniculum vulgare Root Essent. Oil -- 10000.0 -1.1 Jim Duke's personal files.
Foeniculum vulgare Seed Essent. Oil 4700.0 12000.0 -0.7 Jim Duke's personal files.
Foeniculum vulgare Plant -- 480.0 -0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Foeniculum vulgare Seed 200.0 8820.0 0.5 *
Foeniculum vulgare Fruit 200.0 8820.0 1.6 *
Foeniculum vulgare Essential Oil 5800.0 56000.0 -0.1 Jim Duke's personal files.
Glechoma hederacea Plant 4.0 22.0 -0.5 *
Gossypium sp Plant -- -- *
Hedeoma hispida Plant -- 18.0 -0.5 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Hedeoma pulegioides Pollen Or Spore -- 4000.0 *
Hedeoma reverchonii Plant -- 525.0 -0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Hedeoma drummondii Plant 7.0 6780.0 4.3 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Hedeoma pulegioides Plant 24.0 210.0 -0.3 *
Hedychium flavum Shoot -- 590.0 -0.1 *
Helianthus annuus Plant -- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Hesperis matronalis Flower -- -- Nielsen, J. K., Jakobsen, H. B., Friis, P., Hansen, K., Moller, J., Olsen, C. E. 1995. Asynchronous Rhythmus in the Emission of Volatiles from Hesperis matronalis Flowers. Phytochemistry, 38(4): 847-851.
Houttuynia cordata Essential Oil -- -- *
Houttuynia cordata Plant -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Houttuynia cordata Shoot Essent. Oil -- -- *
Humulus lupulus Essential Oil -- -- *
Humulus lupulus Fruit -- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Hypericum perforatum Shoot Essent. Oil -- -- *
Hypericum perforatum Plant 13.0 245.0 -0.3 *
Hypericum perforatum Fruit Essent. Oil -- -- *
Hypericum perforatum Leaf Essent. Oil -- -- *
Hyptis suaveolens Plant -- 215.0 -0.3 Recently became Internat. J. Crude Drug Res. 28(1,2,3,4):1990, page 74.
Hyptis suaveolens Shoot -- 48.0 -0.1 Mallvarapu, G.R., Ramesh, S., Kaul, P.N., Bhattacharya, A.K., and Rao, B.R.R. 1993. The Essential Oil of Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 321.
Hyptis suaveolens Shoot -- 48.0 -0.1 Mallvarapu, G.R., Ramesh, S., Kaul, P.N., Bhattacharya, A.K., and Rao, B.R.R. 1993. The Essential Oil of Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 321.
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- 40.0 -0.1 Kerrola, K., Galambosi, B. and Kallio, H. 1994. Volatile Components and Odor Intensity of Four Phenotypes of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) J. Agric. Food Chem. 42: 776-781.
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- 30.0 -0.1 Kerrola, K., Galambosi, B. and Kallio, H. 1994. Volatile Components and Odor Intensity of Four Phenotypes of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) J. Agric. Food Chem. 42: 776-781.
Hyssopus officinalis Essential Oil -- -- *
Hyssopus officinalis Leaf 0.1 1460.0 -0.1 *
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- 40.0 -0.1 Kerrola, K., Galambosi, B. and Kallio, H. 1994. Volatile Components and Odor Intensity of Four Phenotypes of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) J. Agric. Food Chem. 42: 776-781.
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- 170.0 -0.1 Tsankova, E.T., Konatchiev, A.N. and Genova, E.M. 1993. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils of Two Hyssopus officinalis cultivars. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 609-611.
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- -- Kerrola, K., Galambosi, B. and Kallio, H. 1994. Volatile Components and Odor Intensity of Four Phenotypes of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) J. Agric. Food Chem. 42: 776-781.
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- 20.0 -0.1 Kerrola, K., Galambosi, B. and Kallio, H. 1994. Volatile Components and Odor Intensity of Four Phenotypes of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) J. Agric. Food Chem. 42: 776-781.
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- 70.0 -0.1 Kerrola, K., Galambosi, B. and Kallio, H. 1994. Volatile Components and Odor Intensity of Four Phenotypes of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) J. Agric. Food Chem. 42: 776-781.
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- 170.0 -0.1 Tsankova, E.T., Konatchiev, A.N. and Genova, E.M. 1993. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils of Two Hyssopus officinalis cultivars. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 609-611.
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- 80.0 -0.1 Kerrola, K., Galambosi, B. and Kallio, H. 1994. Volatile Components and Odor Intensity of Four Phenotypes of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) J. Agric. Food Chem. 42: 776-781.
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- 60.0 -0.1 Kerrola, K., Galambosi, B. and Kallio, H. 1994. Volatile Components and Odor Intensity of Four Phenotypes of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) J. Agric. Food Chem. 42: 776-781.
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- 40.0 -0.1 Kerrola, K., Galambosi, B. and Kallio, H. 1994. Volatile Components and Odor Intensity of Four Phenotypes of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) J. Agric. Food Chem. 42: 776-781.
Illicium verum Fruit 50.0 1310.0 -0.4 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Isanthus brachiatus Plant -- 684.0 0.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Juglans nigra Essential Oil -- 17000.0 -0.4 *
Juglans nigra Fruit -- -- *
Juniperus communis Fruit 530.0 9200.0 1.7 *
Juniperus communis Leaf Essent. Oil -- -- *
Juniperus virginiana Leaf -- -- *
Juniperus communis Essential Oil -- 336000.0 2.4 *
Juniperus sabina Plant -- -- *
Juniperus communis Fruit Essent. Oil -- -- *
Lantana camara Leaf -- -- *
Lantana camara Shoot -- 35.0 -0.1 *
Larrea tridentata Essential Oil -- -- *
Laurus nobilis Flower -- -- -0.8 *
Laurus nobilis Leaf -- 125.0 -0.2 *
Laurus nobilis Fruit Essent. Oil -- 93000.0 0.4 *
Laurus nobilis Wood -- -- *
Laurus nobilis Leaf Essent. Oil 1300.0 76600.0 -0.3 *
Laurus nobilis Bark -- 27.0 -1.0 *
Lavandula angustifolia Plant -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lavandula x intermedia Plant 28.0 120.0 -0.4 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lavandula x hybrida Shoot 300.0 455.0 -0.1 Tucker, A.O., Maciarello, M.J., Angell, S., Espaillat, J.R., and French, E.C. 1993. The Essential Oil of Lavandula x hybrida Balb. ex Ging., a Distinct Hybrid from L. x heterophylla Poir. (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 443-445.
Lavandula latifolia Plant 90.0 748.0 0.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Leonotis leonurus Se -- 65.0 Pedro, L.G., Barroso, J.G., Marques, N.T., Ascensao, L., Pais, M.S.S. and Scheffer, J.J.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil from Sepals of Leonotis leonurus R. Br. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 451-3
Leonurus cardiaca Plant 6.0 28.0 -0.5 *
Lepechinia schiediana Plant -- 200.0 -0.3 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lepechinia calycina Plant -- 325.0 -0.3 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Leptospermum polygalifolium Leaf 116875.0 137500.0 8.7 *
Levisticum officinale Root 20.0 200.0 -0.7 *
Lindera benzoin Twig 35.0 43.0 *
Lindera benzoin Leaf -- 2.0 -0.2 *
Lindera benzoin Fruit 125.0 190.0 -0.7 *
Lippia alba Plant -- -- Grenand, P., Moretti, C., and Jacquemin, H. 1987. Pharmacopees Traditionnelles en Guyane. l'ORSTROM, Paris. 569 pp.
Litsea glaucescens Shoot 90.0 140.0 -0.1 Tucker, et al, EB46(1):21-24.1992
Lycopersicon esculentum Fruit -- -- *
Lycopus virginicus Plant 266.0 666.0 -0.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lycopus uniflorus Plant 8.0 22.0 -0.5 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Magnolia kobus Flower -- -- *
Magnolia denudata Leaf -- -- *
Magnolia denudata Bark -- -- *
Magnolia fargesii Flower -- -- *
Magnolia denudata Flower -- -- *
Magnolia officinalis Plant -- -- *
Magnolia denudata Twig -- -- *
Magnolia denudata Bulb -- -- *
Mangifera indica Flower -- -- *
Marrubium vulgare Plant -- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Marrubium vulgare Essential Oil -- -- *
Melaleuca cajuputi Leaf -- 250.0 -0.2 *
Melaleuca linariifolia Leaf 150.0 400.0 -0.2 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Melaleuca alternifolia Resin, Exudate, Sap -- -- *
Melaleuca alternifolia Leaf Essent. Oil -- 25000.0 -0.6 *
Melaleuca alternifolia Leaf 200.0 700.0 -0.2 *
Melaleuca alternifolia Root Essent. Oil -- 9800.0 -1.1 *
Melaleuca viridiflora Leaf -- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Melaleuca leucadendra Leaf -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Melaleuca alternifolia Essential Oil 23000.0 24000.0 -0.3 *
Melaleuca leucadendra Plant -- -- *
Meleleuca howeana Leaf 102.0 221.0 -0.2 *
Mentha spicata Shoot -- -- *
Mentha x piperita Leaf 5.0 230.0 -0.2 *
Mentha pulegium Shoot Essent. Oil -- -- *
Mentha longifolia Shoot 7.0 1065.0 -0.0 *
Mentha aquatica Shoot -- 13.0 -0.1 Umemoto, K., Arai, T., Nii, H. and Furukawa, K. 1993. A New Chemotype of Mentha aquatica Containing Sesquiterpene Alcohols as Major Components. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 67(10): 1417-1419.
Mentha aquatica Shoot -- 8.0 -0.1 Umemoto, K., Arai, T., Nii, H. and Furukawa, K. 1993. A New Chemotype of Mentha aquatica Containing Sesquiterpene Alcohols as Major Components. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 67(10): 1417-1419.
Mentha pulegium Leaf Essent. Oil -- 7000.0 -0.7 *
Mentha spicata Leaf 5.0 375.0 -0.2 *
Mentha arvensis var. piperascens Plant 10.0 300.0 -0.3 *
Mentha aquatica Leaf 18.0 68.0 -0.2 *
Mentha aquatica Shoot -- 14.0 -0.1 Umemoto, K., Arai, T., Nii, H. and Furukawa, K. 1993. A New Chemotype of Mentha aquatica Containing Sesquiterpene Alcohols as Major Components. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 67(10): 1417-1419.
Mentha spicata Essential Oil 2000.0 10000.0 -0.5 *
Mentha x rotundifolia Leaf 4.0 430.0 -0.2 *
Mentha pulegium Essential Oil 2000.0 26000.0 -0.3 *
Mentha pulegium Plant 20.0 520.0 -0.1 *
Mentha aquatica Shoot -- 8.0 -0.1 Umemoto, K., Arai, T., Nii, H. and Furukawa, K. 1993. A New Chemotype of Mentha aquatica Containing Sesquiterpene Alcohols as Major Components. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 67(10): 1417-1419.
Mentha aquatica Shoot -- 9.0 -0.1 Umemoto, K., Arai, T., Nii, H. and Furukawa, K. 1993. A New Chemotype of Mentha aquatica Containing Sesquiterpene Alcohols as Major Components. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 67(10): 1417-1419.
Micromeria juliana Leaf -- 65.0 -0.2 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Micromeria congesta Leaf 95.0 130.0 -0.2 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Micromeria fruticosa Shoot -- 195.0 -0.1 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Micromeria varia Shoot -- 585.0 -0.1 Pedro, L.G., et al. 1995. Composition of the Essential oil of Micromeria varia Benth. ssp. thymoides (Sol. ex Lowe) Perez var. thymoides, and endemic species of the Madeira Archipelago. flav. & Fragr. J. 10(3): 199-202.
Micromeria myrtifolia Shoot -- 0.3 -0.1 Ozek, T., Kirimer, N., and Baser, K.H.C. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria myrtifolia Boiss. et Hohen. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 79-80.
Micromeria thymifolia Leaf -- 65.0 -0.2 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Micromeria dalmatica Leaf -- 60.0 -0.2 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Micromeria fruticosa Leaf 1.0 390.0 -0.2 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Micromeria teneriffae Leaf -- 2030.0 -0.1 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Micromeria fruticosa Shoot -- 195.0 -0.1 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Micromeria croatica Leaf -- 90.0 -0.2 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Micromeria varia Shoot -- 585.0 -0.1 *
Minthostachys mollis Shoot 2.0 4.0 -0.1 Alkire, B.H., Tucker, A.O., and Maciarello, M.J. 1994. Tipo (Minthostachys mollis (Lamiaceae): An Ecuadorian Mint. Econ. Bot. 48(1): 60-64.
Moldavica thymiflora Plant -- 2.0 -0.5 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Monarda didyma Plant 5.0 350.0 -0.2 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Monarda clinopodia Plant -- 65.0 -0.4 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Monarda media Plant 137.0 434.0 -0.2 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Monarda citriodora Leaf -- 65.0 -0.2 Collins, J.E., Bishop, C.D., Deans, S.G. and Svoboda, K.P. 1994. Composition of the Essential Oil from the Leaves and Flowers of Monarda citriodora var. citriodora grown in the United Kingdom. J. Ess. Oil Res. 6: 27-9.
Monarda citriodora Plant 25.0 214.0 -0.3 *
Monarda lindheimeri Plant -- 211.0 -0.3 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Monarda russeliana Plant -- 14.0 -0.5 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Monarda didyma Leaf 50.0 90.0 -0.2 *
Monarda citriodora Flower -- 115.0 0.1 Collins, J.E., Bishop, C.D., Deans, S.G. and Svoboda, K.P. 1994. Composition of the Essential Oil from the Leaves and Flowers of Monarda citriodora var. citriodora grown in the United Kingdom. J. Ess. Oil Res. 6: 27-9.
Monarda fistulosa Plant 3.0 1823.0 0.8 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Monarda punctata Plant 40.0 1974.0 0.9 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Monarda didyma Flower -- 18.0 -0.7 Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 80.
Murraya koenigii Leaf -- 9880.0 0.4 *
Myrciaria dubia Fruit -- -- *
Myrica cerifera Leaf -- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Myristica fragrans Essential Oil 132000.0 265000.0 1.8 *
Myristica fragrans Leaf Essent. Oil -- -- *
Myristica fragrans Seed -- -- *
Myristica fragrans Seed Essent. Oil 106000.0 265000.0 1.1 *
Myroxylon balsamum Plant -- -- *
Myrrhis odorata Essential Oil -- 100.0 -0.6 Hussain, R.A., et. al. 1990. Sweetening Agents of Plant Origin: Phenylpropanoid Constituents of Seven Sweet-Tasting Plants. Econ. Bot. 44 2: 174-182. Program Collab. Res. Pharm. Sci. Coll. Pharmacy Univ. Illinois at Chicago IL 60680, USA.
Myrrhis odorata Plant -- -- Gruenwald, J. et al. 1998. PDR for Herbal Medicine. 1st ed. Medical Economics Co., Montvale, NJ. 1244 pp. (abbreviated as PHR or Physicians Herbal Reference in my mind)
Myrtus communis Plant 242.0 1420.0 0.5 *
Myrtus communis Leaf 150.0 1900.0 -0.1 *
Nardostachys jatamansi Plant -- -- *
Nepeta racemosa Shoot -- 70.0 -0.1 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Akgul, A. and Tumen, G. 1993. Composition of the Essential Oil of Nepeta racemosa Lam. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 215-7.
Nepeta racemosa Shoot -- 10.0 -0.1 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Akgul, A. and Tumen, G. 1993. Composition of the Essential Oil of Nepeta racemosa Lam. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 215-7.
Ocimum gratissimum Leaf 23.0 43.0 -0.2 Charles, D.J. and Simon, J.E. 1992. A New Geraniol Chemotype of Ocimum gratissimum L. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 231-234.
Ocimum kilimandscharicum Flower 55.0 105.0 0.0 Charles, D.J., and Simon, J.E. 1992. Essential Oil Constituents of Ocimum killimandscharicum Guerke. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 125-128.
Ocimum basilicum Leaf Essent. Oil 3700.0 13000.0 -0.7 *
Ocimum gratissimum Shoot -- 55.0 -0.1 Vostrowsky, O., Garbe, W., Bestmann, H.J. and Maia, J.G.S. 1990. Essential Oil of Alfavaca, Ocimum gratissimum, from Brazilian Amazon. Zeitschr. Naturforschung 45(C): 1073-6.
Ocimum gratissimum Flower 47.0 88.0 -0.1 Charles, D.J. and Simon, J.E. 1992. A New Geraniol Chemotype of Ocimum gratissimum L. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 231-234.
Ocimum tenuiflorum Leaf -- -- =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp
Ocimum canum Shoot -- -- =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp
Ocimum basilicum Essential Oil 300.0 18000.0 -0.4 *
Ocimum gratissimum Plant 15.0 155.0 -0.4 *
Ocimum basilicum Plant 2.0 180.0 -0.4 *
Ocimum kilimandscharicum Leaf 40.0 85.0 -0.2 Charles, D.J., and Simon, J.E. 1992. Essential Oil Constituents of Ocimum killimandscharicum Guerke. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 125-128.
Ocimum basilicum Shoot Essent. Oil 4600.0 7200.0 -0.5 *
Origanum onites Plant -- 16.0 -0.5 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Origanum minutiflorum Shoot 235.0 310.0 -0.1 Baser, K.H.C., Tumen, G., Sezik, E. 1991. The Essential Oil of Origanum minutiflorum O. Schwarz and P.H. Davis. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 445-446.
Origanum vulgare Plant -- 730.0 0.0 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Origanum sipyleum Shoot -- 325.0 -0.1 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kurkcuoglu, M. and Tumen, G. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Origanum sipyleum of Turkish Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 139-142.
Origanum syriacum Shoot -- 265.0 -0.1 Fleisher, A. & Fleisher, Z. 1991. Chemical Composition of Origanum syriacum L. Essential Oil. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 121-123.
Origanum sipyleum Shoot -- 325.0 -0.1 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kurkcuoglu, M. and Tumen, G. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Origanum sipyleum of Turkish Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 139-142.
Origanum vulgare Essential Oil -- 14300.0 -0.4 *
Origanum majorana Essential Oil -- 19000.0 -0.4 *
Origanum onites Shoot -- 60.0 -0.1 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Origanum majorana Plant 15.0 86.0 -0.4 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Origanum vulgare Plant -- 1.0 -0.5 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Origanum vulgare Shoot -- 225.0 -0.1 Lagouri, V., Blekas, G., Tsimidou, M., Kokkini, S., and Boskou, D. 1993. Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils from Oregano Plants Grown Wild in Greece. Z. Lebensm Unters Forsch 197: 20-23.
Origanum sipyleum Shoot -- 725.0 -0.1 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kurkcuoglu, M. and Tumen, G. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Origanum sipyleum of Turkish Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 139-142.
Origanum syriacum Shoot -- 325.0 -0.1 Fleisher, A. & Fleisher, Z. 1991. Chemical Composition of Origanum syriacum L. Essential Oil. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 121-123.
Origanum vulgare Shoot Essent. Oil 8400.0 8800.0 -0.3 *
Origanum onites Shoot -- 60.0 -0.1 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Origanum vulgare Plant -- 2.0 -0.5 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Origanum vulgare Plant -- 1.0 -0.5 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Origanum sipyleum Shoot -- 25.0 -0.1 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kurkcuoglu, M. and Tumen, G. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Origanum sipyleum of Turkish Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 139-142.
Origanum syriacum Shoot -- 265.0 -0.1 Fleisher, A. & Fleisher, Z. 1991. Chemical Composition of Origanum syriacum L. Essential Oil. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 121-123.
Origanum vulgare Plant 6.0 143.0 -0.4 *
Panax ginseng Root Essent. Oil -- -- *
Panax ginseng Root -- -- *
Pelargonium citrosum Shoot -- 0.6 -0.1 Matsuda, B. M., et al. 1996. Essential Oil Analysis and Field Evaluation of the Citrosa Plant 'Pelargonium citrosum' as a Repellent Against Populations of Aedes Mosquitoes. J. Am. Mosq. Contr. Assoc. 12(1):69-74.
Pelargonium roseum Shoot -- 126.0 -0.1 *
Pelargonium graveolens Essential Oil 1.0 3.0 -0.6 *
Perilla frutescens Shoot Essent. Oil -- 7000.0 -0.5 Nguyen, X. D., La, D. M., Lu'u, D. C., Leclercq, P. A. 1995. Essential Oil Constituents from the Aerial Parts of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton. J. Essent. Oil Res., 7(4): 429-432.
Perilla frutescens Plant -- -- J.S. Glasby Dict.Pls Containing 2ndary Metabolite. 1991.
Petroselinum crispum Root -- -- *
Petroselinum crispum Leaf -- 5.0 -0.2 *
Petroselinum crispum Fruit -- -- *
Petroselinum crispum Seed Essent. Oil -- 444000.0 2.3 *
Petroselinum crispum Fruit Essent. Oil 2000.0 248500.0 2.4 *
Petroselinum crispum Seed 1.0 31080.0 2.9 *
Peucedanum ostruthium Root 480.0 3360.0 0.9 *
Peumus boldus Leaf 1.0 1000.0 -0.2 *
Pilocarpus microphyllus Leaf -- 25.0 -0.2 *
Pilocarpus jaborandi Leaf -- 125.0 -0.2 *
Pimenta dioica Fruit -- 14.0 -0.7 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pimenta dioica Leaf -- 20.0 -0.2 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pimenta dioica Leaf Essent. Oil -- -- *
Pimenta racemosa Leaf -- 950.0 -0.2 *
Pimpinella anisum Essential Oil -- -- *
Pimpinella anisum Seed 1.0 306.0 -0.5 *
Pimpinella anisum Fruit 1.0 306.0 -0.6 *
Pinus roxburghii Resin, Exudate, Sap 200000.0 300000.0 -0.4 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Pinus sylvestris Flower -- -- *
Pinus sylvestris Resin, Exudate, Sap -- -- *
Pinus palustris Resin, Exudate, Sap 128600.0 160750.0 -0.8 *
Pinus kesiya Resin, Exudate, Sap 270000.0 941000.0 1.2 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Pinus sylvestris Twig -- -- *
Pinus sylvestris Essential Oil -- -- *
Pinus sylvestris Leaf 600.0 2500.0 -0.1 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Pinus gerardiana Resin, Exudate, Sap 700000.0 800000.0 0.9 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Pinus walliciana Leaf -- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Pinus sylvestris Plant -- -- *
Pinus sylvestris Leaf Essent. Oil -- 312000.0 1.0 *
Pinus sylvestris Root Essent. Oil 175000.0 200000.0 1.0 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Pinus insularis Resin, Exudate, Sap 270000.0 941000.0 1.2 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Piper cubeba Fruit Essent. Oil 3000.0 130000.0 0.9 *
Piper nigrum Fruit Essent. Oil 45000.0 94000.0 0.4 *
Piper auritum Leaf -- -- Tramil
Piper nigrum Essential Oil -- -- *
Piper nigrum Fruit -- 3810.0 0.3 *
Piper nigrum Seed Essent. Oil -- -- *
Piper cubeba Fruit 1100.0 2200.0 -0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pistacia lentiscus Resin, Exudate, Sap -- -- *
Pogostemon cablin Plant -- -- *
Polygonum hydropiper Essential Oil -- -- *
Porophyllum ruderale Plant 27.0 40.0 -0.5 Loayza, I., de Groot, W., Lorenzo, D. et al. 1999. Composition of the essential oil of Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass. from Bolivia. Flav. & Fragr. J. 14: 393-8.
Psidium guajava Essential Oil -- -- *
Psidium guajava Leaf Essent. Oil -- 378000.0 1.3 *
Psidium guajava Pericarp Essent. Oil -- -- *
Ptychopetalum olacoides Root Essent. Oil -- 259000.0 1.7 Uber Bucek, E., Fournier, G., Dadoun, H. 1987. Volatile Constituents of Ptychopetalum olacoides Root Oil. Planta Med. 53, 2: 231.
Pycnanthemum verticillatum Shoot -- 63.0 -0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum setosum Shoot 20.0 1209.0 -0.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum pilosum Flower 38.0 140.0 0.3 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum clinopodioides Shoot 84.0 88.0 -0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum loomisii Shoot 2046.0 2646.0 0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum albescens Shoot 16.0 54.0 -0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum torreyi Shoot -- 20.0 -0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum pycnanthemoides Shoot 156.0 696.0 -0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum muticum Shoot 29.0 200.0 -0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum californicum Shoot -- 144.0 -0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum incanum Shoot 55.0 114.0 -0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum virginianum Shoot 6.0 145.0 -0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum tenuifolium Shoot 1.0 1020.0 -0.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum pilosum Leaf 38.0 140.0 -0.2 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum montanum Shoot 7.0 272.0 -0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum beadlei Shoot -- 21.0 -0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum curvipes Shoot -- 84.0 -0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Ravensara aromatica Leaf -- 60.0 -0.2 *
Ribes nigrum Leaf -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Ribes nigrum Fruit -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Rosa gallica Essential Oil -- -- *
Rosa damascena Essential Oil -- -- *
Rosa centifolia Essential Oil -- -- *
Rosmarinus officinalis Shoot 990.0 2180.0 0.1 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Rosmarinus officinalis Plant 34.0 7225.0 4.6 *
Rosmarinus x mendizabalii Shoot 680.0 1500.0 0.0 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Rosmarinus officinalis Shoot Essent. Oil -- 4400.0 -0.7 *
Rosmarinus eriocalyx Shoot 680.0 1225.0 -0.0 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Rosmarinus officinalis Shoot 1080.0 3000.0 0.2 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Rosmarinus officinalis Leaf -- 34.0 -0.2 Soliman, F.M., El-Kashoury, M.M., Fathy, M.M. and Gonaid, M.H. 1994. Analysis and Biological Activity of the Essential Oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. from Egypt. Flavour and Fragrance J. 9: 29-33.
Rosmarinus x lavandulaceus Shoot 405.0 1740.0 0.0 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Rosmarinus officinalis Leaf Essent. Oil -- 276000.0 0.8 *
Rosmarinus officinalis Shoot -- 565.0 -0.1 Tucker, A. O. and Maciarello, M. J. 1998. The essential oils of some rosemary cultivars. Flavor and Fragrance Journal, 1: 137-142. 1986.
Rosmarinus officinalis Leaf -- 34.0 -0.2 Soliman, F.M., El-Kashoury, M.M., Fathy, M.M. and Gonaid, M.H. 1994. Analysis and Biological Activity of the Essential Oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. from Egypt. Flavour and Fragrance J. 9: 29-33.
Rosmarinus eriocalyx Shoot 680.0 1225.0 -0.0 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Rosmarinus officinalis Resin, Exudate, Sap -- -- *
Rosmarinus tomentosus Shoot 665.0 2830.0 0.1 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Rosmarinus officinalis Essential Oil 79000.0 250000.0 1.6 *
Ruta graveolens Plant -- -- *
Salvia officinalis Leaf Essent. Oil 35000.0 55000.0 -0.5 *
Salvia gilliesii Shoot -- 55.0 -0.1 Velasco-Negueruela, A. et al. 1993. The Essential Oil of Salvia gilliesii Benth. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 319-320.
Salvia officinalis Plant 7.0 1540.0 0.6 *
Salvia dorisiana Shoot -- -- -0.1 Tucker, A.O. & Maciarello, M.J. 1994. The Essential Oil of Salvia dorisiana Standley. J. Ess. Oil Res. 6: 97-8.
Salvia officinalis Essential Oil 11700.0 40100.0 -0.2 *
Salvia triloba Plant 270.0 1800.0 0.8 *
Salvia officinalis Et -- 35000.0 1.0 *
Salvia canariensis Leaf -- 670.0 -0.2 Casnigueral,S., Iglesias,J., Vila,R., Virgili,A. and Ibanez,C.1994. The Essential Oil from Leaves of Salvia canariensis L. Flav. & Frag. J. 9:201-204. S. Canigueral, Facultat de Farmacia, Universitat de Barcelona, Ave.Diagonal 643,E-08028, Barcelone Spain
Salvia sclarea Plant -- 3.0 -0.5 Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 154.
Sassafras albidum Root 1000.0 2000.0 0.2 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Sassafras albidum Leaf 0.1 5.0 -0.2 *
Satureja obovata Shoot 300.0 510.0 -0.1 Fitoterapia No.60: 277.
Satureja subspicata Plant -- 30.0 -0.5 Stanic, G., Petricic, J., and Blazevic, N. 1991. Gas Chromatographic Investigations of Essential Oils of Satureja montana and Satureja subspicata from Yugoslavia. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 153-158.
Satureja obovata Leaf -- 330.0 -0.2 Arrebola, M.L., Navaro, M.C., Jimenez, J. and Ocana, F.A. 1994. Variations in Yield and Composition of the Essential Oil of Satureja obovata. Phytochemistry 35(1): 83.
Satureja grandiflora Shoot -- 4.0 -0.1 Carnat, A., Chossegros, A., and Lamaison, J. 1991. The Essential Oil of Satureja grandiflora (L.) Scheele from France. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 361-362
Satureja hortensis Plant -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Satureja montana Essential Oil -- 6600.0 -0.5 *
Satureja obovata Leaf -- 225.0 -0.2 Arrebola, M.L., Navaro, M.C., Jimenez, J. and Ocana, F.A. 1994. Variations in Yield and Composition of the Essential Oil of Satureja obovata. Phytochemistry 35(1): 83.
Satureja parvifolia Shoot -- 20.0 -0.1 Zygadlo, J.A., Merino. E.F., Maestri, D.M., Guzman, C.A. and Espinar, L.A. 1993. The Essential Oils of Satureja odora and Satureja parvifolia from Argentina. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 549-51.
Satureja obovata Leaf -- 425.0 -0.2 Arrebola, M.L., Navaro, M.C., Jimenez, J. and Ocana, F.A. 1994. Variations in Yield and Composition of the Essential Oil of Satureja obovata. Phytochemistry 35(1): 83.
Satureja cuneifolia Shoot -- 405.0 -0.1 Tumen, G. 1991. The Volatile Constituents of Satureja cuneifolia. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 365-366.
Satureja glabella Plant -- 40.0 -0.5 *
Satureja thymbra Shoot -- 480.0 -0.1 Lagouri, V., Blekas, G., Tsimidou, M., Kokkini, S., and Boskou, D. 1993. Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils from Oregano Plants Grown Wild in Greece. Z. Lebensm Unters Forsch 197: 20-23.
Satureja obovata Leaf -- 130.0 -0.2 Arrebola, M.L., Navaro, M.C., Jimenez, J. and Ocana, F.A. 1994. Variations in Yield and Composition of the Essential Oil of Satureja obovata. Phytochemistry 35(1): 83.
Satureja odora Shoot -- 22.0 -0.1 Zygadlo, J.A., Merino. E.F., Maestri, D.M., Guzman, C.A. and Espinar, L.A. 1993. The Essential Oils of Satureja odora and Satureja parvifolia from Argentina. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 549-51.
Satureja cilicica Shoot -- 150.0 -0.1 Tumen, G. Baser, K.H.C. and Kirimer, N. 1993. The Essential Oil of Satureja cilicica P.H. Davis. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 547-548.
Satureja montana Plant 5.0 245.0 -0.3 *
Satureja douglasii Plant 299.0 884.0 0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Schinus molle Fruit -- -- *
Sideritis germanicolpitana Plant 88.0 104.0 -0.4 J. Essential Oil, 4: 533.
Sideritis mugronensis Leaf 75.0 110.0 -0.2 Manez, S., Jimenez, A., and Villar, A. 1991. Volatiles of Sideritis mugronensis Flower and Leaf. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 395-397.
Sideritis athoa Shoot -- 160.0 -0.1 Ozek, T., Baser, K.H.C. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Essential Oil of Sideritis athoa Papanikolaou Et Kokkini. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 669-670.
Sideritis mugronensis Flower 15.0 410.0 2.6 Manez, S., Jimenez, A., and Villar, A. 1991. Volatiles of Sideritis mugronensis Flower and Leaf. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 395-397.
Sideritis pauli Shoot -- 1540.0 0.0 Burzaco, A., Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1992. Essential Oil Analysis of Sideritis pauli Pau. FFJ7: 47-8. 1992.
Skimmia arborescens Leaf 325.0 1560.0 -0.1 *
Stachys germanica Plant -- 67.0 -0.4 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Stevia rebaudiana Leaf -- 5.0 -0.2 Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Stevia rebaudiana Flower -- 4.0 -0.8 Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Syringa vulgaris Flower -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Tagetes minuta Leaf Essent. Oil -- -- Zygadlo, J. S., Guzman, C. A., Grosso, N. R. 1994. Antifungal Properties of the Leaf Oils of Tagetes Minuta L. and T. filifolia Lag. J. Essent. Oil Res. 6 6: 617-621. Cat Quim Org Fac Cien Exact Univ Nacion Cordoba Cordoba 5000 Argentina.
Tagetes filifolia Leaf Essent. Oil -- -- Zygadlo, J. S., Guzman, C. A., Grosso, N. R. 1994. Antifungal Properties of the Leaf Oils of Tagetes Minuta L. and T. filifolia Lag. J. Essent. Oil Res. 6 6: 617-621. Cat Quim Org Fac Cien Exact Univ Nacion Cordoba Cordoba 5000 Argentina.
Tagetes minuta Flower Essent. Oil -- 100.0 -1.0 *
Tagetes filifolia Shoot -- 4.7 -0.1 *
Tagetes minuta Plant -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Tagetes minuta Essential Oil -- 10300.0 -0.5 *
Tamarindus indica Fruit Essent. Oil -- -- *
Tanacetum parthenium Shoot -- 15.0 -0.1 Hendriks, H., Bos, R., and Woerdenbag, H. J. 1996. The Essential Oil of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz-Bip. Flavor and Fragrance Journal 11(6): 367-71.
Tanacetum parthenium Essential Oil -- 10000.0 -0.5 *
Tanacetum vulgare Plant -- -- *
Tanacetum parthenium Fruit Essent. Oil -- 2000.0 -0.8 *
Telosma cordata Flower -- 31.0 -0.6 K. Furukawa, T. Arai, S. Hashimoto, (1993); Volatile components of Telosma cordata Merrill flowers, Flavour Fragr. J., Vol 8, 221-223.
Tetraclinis articulata Resin, Exudate, Sap -- -- *
Teucrium polium Shoot -- 80.0 -0.1 Perez-Alonso, M.J. Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Lopez-Saez, J.A. 1993. The Essential Oils of Two Iberian Teucrium Species. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 397-402.
Teucrium kotschyanum Leaf -- -- -0.2 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Teucrium salviastrum Shoot -- 0.2 -0.1 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Teucrium cyprium Leaf -- 430.0 -0.2 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Teucrium oxylepis Shoot -- 0.35 -0.1 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Teucrium gnaphalodes Shoot -- 8.0 -0.1 Perez-Alonso, M.J. Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Lopez-Saez, J.A. 1993. The Essential Oils of Two Iberian Teucrium Species. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 397-402.
Teucrium pseudoscorodonia Shoot -- -- Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Teucrium asiaticum Shoot -- 0.18 -0.1 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Teucrium oxylepis Shoot -- 0.18 -0.1 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Teucrium scorodonia Shoot -- 0.08 -0.1 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Teucrium polium Plant -- -- Rizk, A.F.M., The Phytochemistry of the Flora of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar, Kingprint, Richmond, UK, 1986.
Teucrium divaricatum Leaf -- 365.0 -0.2 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Teucrium micropodioides Leaf -- 265.0 -0.2 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Thymus zygis Shoot -- 32.0 -0.1 Jimenez, J., Navarro, M.C., Montilla, M.P., Martin, A. and Martinez, A. 1993. Thymus zygis Oil: Its Effects on CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Free Radical Scavenger Activity. JEO5: 153-8.
Thymus longicaulis Shoot -- 635.0 -0.1 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Thymus vulgaris Essential Oil -- 8000.0 -0.5 *
Thymus serpyllum Plant 1.0 362.0 -0.2 *
Thymus capitatus Shoot -- 4.0 -0.1 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Thymus saturejoides Shoot -- 1750.0 0.0 Tantaoui-Elaraki, A., Lattaoui, N., Errifi, A. and Benjilali, B. 1993. Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oils of Thymus broussonettii, T. zygis and T. saturejoides. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 45-53.
Thymus funkii Shoot -- 425.0 -0.1 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Thymus zygis Shoot 60.0 490.0 -0.1 De Cunha, A.P. and Salguiero, L.R. 1991. The Chemical Polymorphism of Thymus zygis ssp. sylvestris from Central Portugal. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 409-12.
Thymus longicaulis Shoot -- 3.0 -0.1 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Thymus orospedanus Plant -- 665.0 -0.0 J. Nat. Prod.
Thymus capitatus Plant 10.0 150.0 -0.4 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Thymus riatarum Shoot -- 230.0 -0.1 Iglesias, J., Vila, R., Canigueral, S., Bellakdhar, and Il Idrissi, A. 1991. Analysis of the Essential Oil of Thymus riatarum. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 43-4.
Thymus x citriodorus Plant -- 50.0 -0.4 Stahl-Biskup, E. and Holthuijzen, J. 1995. Essential oil and glycosidally bound volatiles of lemon-scented thyme, Thymus x citriodorus (Pers.) Schreb. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10: 225-229.
Thymus zygis Shoot -- 32.0 -0.1 Jimenez, J., Navarro, M.C., Montilla, M.P., Martin, A. and Martinez, A. 1993. Thymus zygis Oil: Its Effects on CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Free Radical Scavenger Activity. JEO5: 153-8.
Thymus longicaulis Shoot -- 3.0 -0.1 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Thymus vulgaris Plant 15.0 1598.0 0.6 *
Thymus mastichina Plant -- 260.0 -0.3 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Thymus funkii Shoot -- 425.0 -0.1 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Thymus broussonettii Shoot -- 860.0 -0.1 Tantaoui-Elaraki, A., Lattaoui, N., Errifi, A. and Benjilali, B. 1993. Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oils of Thymus broussonettii, T. zygis and T. saturejoides. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 45-53.
Tilia sp. Flower -- -- *
Trachyspermum ammi Fruit 99.0 720.0 -0.5 *
Trichostemma dichotomum Shoot -- 35.0 -0.1 Tucker, A.O. and Maciarello, M.J. 1990. The Essential Oil of Trichostemma dichotomum. J. Ess. Oil Res. 2: 149-150.
Turnera diffusa Leaf 50.0 100.0 -0.2 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Umbellularia californica Plant 360.0 1440.0 0.5 *
Vaccinium corymbosum Fruit -- -- *
Valeriana officinalis Rhizome Essent. Oil -- -- *
Valeriana officinalis Leaf 2.0 6095.0 0.2 Father Nature's Farmacy: The aggregate of all these three-letter citations.
Valeriana officinalis Essential Oil -- -- *
Valeriana officinalis Root 1.0 500.0 -0.5 Father Nature's Farmacy: The aggregate of all these three-letter citations.
Valeriana officinalis Leaf Essent. Oil 1000.0 239100.0 0.6 *
Valeriana officinalis Root Essent. Oil -- 25000.0 -1.0 *
Vetiveria zizanioides Root -- 15.0 -0.8 *
Vitex agnus-castus Fruit 21.0 4000.0 0.3 *
Vitex agnus-castus Flower -- -- *
Vitex agnus-castus Leaf Essent. Oil -- 43200.0 -0.5 Jim Duke's personal files.
Vitex agnus-castus Leaf -- 21.0 -0.2 Ekundayo, O., Laakso, I., Holopainen, M., Hiltunen, R., Oguntimein, B., and Kauppinen, V. 1990. The Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Leaf Oil of Vitex agnus-castus L. J. Essential Oil Research, 2: 115-119.
Vitex agnus-castus Fruit Essent. Oil -- 6.6 -0.8 Jim Duke's personal files.
Zea mays Husk Essent. Oil -- -- *
Zingiber officinale Rhizome -- 720.0 1.1 *
Zingiber officinale Rhizome Essent. Oil -- 39000.0 1.4 *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.