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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Pinus gerardiana Resin, Exudate, Sap 700000.0 800000.0 0.9 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Pinus kesiya Resin, Exudate, Sap 270000.0 941000.0 1.2 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Pinus insularis Resin, Exudate, Sap 270000.0 941000.0 1.2 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Pinus roxburghii Resin, Exudate, Sap 200000.0 300000.0 -0.4 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Pinus sylvestris Root Essent. Oil 175000.0 200000.0 1.0 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Myristica fragrans Essential Oil 132000.0 265000.0 1.8 *
Pinus palustris Resin, Exudate, Sap 128600.0 160750.0 -0.8 *
Leptospermum polygalifolium Leaf 116875.0 137500.0 8.7 *
Myristica fragrans Seed Essent. Oil 106000.0 265000.0 1.1 *
Rosmarinus officinalis Essential Oil 79000.0 250000.0 1.6 *
Piper nigrum Fruit Essent. Oil 45000.0 94000.0 0.4 *
Salvia officinalis Leaf Essent. Oil 35000.0 55000.0 -0.5 *
Melaleuca alternifolia Essential Oil 23000.0 24000.0 -0.3 *
Anethum graveolens Shoot Essent. Oil 17500.0 31700.0 2.0 *
Apium graveolens Et 12000.0 14000.0 -1.0 *
Elettaria cardamomum Fruit Essent. Oil 12000.0 16000.0 -0.6 *
Salvia officinalis Essential Oil 11700.0 40100.0 -0.2 *
Coriandrum sativum Seed Essent. Oil 11400.0 52980.0 -0.4 *
Apium graveolens Seed Essent. Oil 10000.0 10500.0 -0.7 *
Origanum vulgare Shoot Essent. Oil 8400.0 8800.0 -0.3 *
Elettaria cardamomum Seed Essent. Oil 6900.0 17000.0 -0.6 *
Foeniculum vulgare Essential Oil 5800.0 56000.0 -0.1 Jim Duke's personal files.
Citrus limon Pericarp Essent. Oil 5000.0 14000.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Eucalyptus globulus Leaf Essent. Oil 5000.0 260000.0 0.7 *
Foeniculum vulgare Seed Essent. Oil 4700.0 12000.0 -0.7 Jim Duke's personal files.
Ocimum basilicum Shoot Essent. Oil 4600.0 7200.0 -0.5 *
Ocimum basilicum Leaf Essent. Oil 3700.0 13000.0 -0.7 *
Piper cubeba Fruit Essent. Oil 3000.0 130000.0 0.9 *
Eucalyptus citriodora Leaf Essent. Oil 2900.0 6000.0 -0.7 *
Abies sachalinensis Branches 2400.0 2700.0 *
Pycnanthemum loomisii Shoot 2046.0 2646.0 0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Mentha spicata Essential Oil 2000.0 10000.0 -0.5 *
Mentha pulegium Essential Oil 2000.0 26000.0 -0.3 *
Petroselinum crispum Fruit Essent. Oil 2000.0 248500.0 2.4 *
Artemisia annua Leaf 1345.0 3760.0 0.0 *
Laurus nobilis Leaf Essent. Oil 1300.0 76600.0 -0.3 *
Eucalyptus globulus Leaf 1250.0 8750.0 0.3 *
Piper cubeba Fruit 1100.0 2200.0 -0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Rosmarinus officinalis Shoot 1080.0 3000.0 0.2 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Boswellia sacra Resin, Exudate, Sap 1050.0 71600.0 -1.0 *
Sassafras albidum Root 1000.0 2000.0 0.2 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Valeriana officinalis Leaf Essent. Oil 1000.0 239100.0 0.6 *
Rosmarinus officinalis Shoot 990.0 2180.0 0.1 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Coriandrum sativum Fruit 819.0 13780.0 2.9 *
Rosmarinus x mendizabalii Shoot 680.0 1500.0 0.0 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Rosmarinus eriocalyx Shoot 680.0 1225.0 -0.0 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Rosmarinus eriocalyx Shoot 680.0 1225.0 -0.0 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Rosmarinus tomentosus Shoot 665.0 2830.0 0.1 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Pinus sylvestris Leaf 600.0 2500.0 -0.1 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Abies alba Plant 590.0 826.0 0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Abies balsamea Plant 545.0 5050.0 3.1 *
Juniperus communis Fruit 530.0 9200.0 1.7 *
Citrus limon Leaf Essent. Oil 500.0 2000.0 -0.7 Jim Duke's personal files.
Peucedanum ostruthium Root 480.0 3360.0 0.9 *
Chenopodium ambrosioides Plant 440.0 4800.0 2.9 *
Rosmarinus x lavandulaceus Shoot 405.0 1740.0 0.0 Soriano Cano, M.C., Sotomayor Sanchez, J.A., Sanchez Gomez, P. and Garcia Vallejo, M.C. 1993. Essential Oils of the Rosmarinus eriocalyx-tomentosus Complex in Southeast Spain. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 243-246.
Canarium indicum Essential Oil 400.0 1000.0 -0.6 *
Umbellularia californica Plant 360.0 1440.0 0.5 *
Skimmia arborescens Leaf 325.0 1560.0 -0.1 *
Ocimum basilicum Essential Oil 300.0 18000.0 -0.4 *
Lavandula x hybrida Shoot 300.0 455.0 -0.1 Tucker, A.O., Maciarello, M.J., Angell, S., Espaillat, J.R., and French, E.C. 1993. The Essential Oil of Lavandula x hybrida Balb. ex Ging., a Distinct Hybrid from L. x heterophylla Poir. (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 443-445.
Satureja obovata Shoot 300.0 510.0 -0.1 Fitoterapia No.60: 277.
Satureja douglasii Plant 299.0 884.0 0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Salvia triloba Plant 270.0 1800.0 0.8 *
Lycopus virginicus Plant 266.0 666.0 -0.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Myrtus communis Plant 242.0 1420.0 0.5 *
Origanum minutiflorum Shoot 235.0 310.0 -0.1 Baser, K.H.C., Tumen, G., Sezik, E. 1991. The Essential Oil of Origanum minutiflorum O. Schwarz and P.H. Davis. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 445-446.
Elettaria cardamomum Fruit 217.0 3000.0 0.1 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Melaleuca alternifolia Leaf 200.0 700.0 -0.2 *
Foeniculum vulgare Fruit 200.0 8820.0 1.6 *
Foeniculum vulgare Seed 200.0 8820.0 0.5 *
Angelica archangelica Seed 170.0 1500.0 -0.3 *
Pycnanthemum pycnanthemoides Shoot 156.0 696.0 -0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Melaleuca linariifolia Leaf 150.0 400.0 -0.2 Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Myrtus communis Leaf 150.0 1900.0 -0.1 *
Abies spectabilis Leaf 150.0 515.0 -0.2 *
Cinnamomum camphora Leaf 140.0 280.0 -0.2 *
Monarda media Plant 137.0 434.0 -0.2 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lindera benzoin Fruit 125.0 190.0 -0.7 *
Meleleuca howeana Leaf 102.0 221.0 -0.2 *
Artemisia dracunculus Shoot 100.0 1000.0 -0.0 *
Trachyspermum ammi Fruit 99.0 720.0 -0.5 *
Micromeria congesta Leaf 95.0 130.0 -0.2 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Cleonia lusitanica Leaf 90.0 170.0 -0.2 Perez-Alonso, M., Velasco-Negueruela, A., and Lopez-Saez, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Cleonia lusitanica. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 441-442.
Lavandula latifolia Plant 90.0 748.0 0.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Litsea glaucescens Shoot 90.0 140.0 -0.1 Tucker, et al, EB46(1):21-24.1992
Sideritis germanicolpitana Plant 88.0 104.0 -0.4 J. Essential Oil, 4: 533.
Pycnanthemum clinopodioides Shoot 84.0 88.0 -0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Citrus aurantiifolia Fruit 80.0 240.0 -0.7 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Cymbopogon nardus Plant 78.0 312.0 -0.3 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Sideritis mugronensis Leaf 75.0 110.0 -0.2 Manez, S., Jimenez, A., and Villar, A. 1991. Volatiles of Sideritis mugronensis Flower and Leaf. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 395-397.
Thymus zygis Shoot 60.0 490.0 -0.1 De Cunha, A.P. and Salguiero, L.R. 1991. The Chemical Polymorphism of Thymus zygis ssp. sylvestris from Central Portugal. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 409-12.
Curcuma longa Leaf 60.0 1440.0 -0.1 *
Pycnanthemum incanum Shoot 55.0 114.0 -0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Ocimum kilimandscharicum Flower 55.0 105.0 0.0 Charles, D.J., and Simon, J.E. 1992. Essential Oil Constituents of Ocimum killimandscharicum Guerke. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 125-128.
Citrus reticulata Fruit 50.0 55.0 -0.7 *
Turnera diffusa Leaf 50.0 100.0 -0.2 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Monarda didyma Leaf 50.0 90.0 -0.2 *
Illicium verum Fruit 50.0 1310.0 -0.4 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Ocimum gratissimum Flower 47.0 88.0 -0.1 Charles, D.J. and Simon, J.E. 1992. A New Geraniol Chemotype of Ocimum gratissimum L. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 231-234.
Carum carvi Fruit 42.0 540.0 -0.6 *
Monarda punctata Plant 40.0 1974.0 0.9 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Citrus limon Essential Oil 40.0 500.0 -0.6 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Ocimum kilimandscharicum Leaf 40.0 85.0 -0.2 Charles, D.J., and Simon, J.E. 1992. Essential Oil Constituents of Ocimum killimandscharicum Guerke. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 125-128.
Cistus ladaniferus Leaf 40.0 31500.0 1.8 *
Pycnanthemum pilosum Flower 38.0 140.0 0.3 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum pilosum Leaf 38.0 140.0 -0.2 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lindera benzoin Twig 35.0 43.0 *
Angelica archangelica Root 35.0 5890.0 2.2 *
Citrus sinensis Fruit 35.0 40.0 -0.7 *
Rosmarinus officinalis Plant 34.0 7225.0 4.6 *
Pycnanthemum muticum Shoot 29.0 200.0 -0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lavandula x intermedia Plant 28.0 120.0 -0.4 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Porophyllum ruderale Plant 27.0 40.0 -0.5 Loayza, I., de Groot, W., Lorenzo, D. et al. 1999. Composition of the essential oil of Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass. from Bolivia. Flav. & Fragr. J. 14: 393-8.
Anethum graveolens Leaf 25.0 405.0 -0.2 *
Monarda citriodora Plant 25.0 214.0 -0.3 *
Hedeoma pulegioides Plant 24.0 210.0 -0.3 *
Anethum graveolens Fruit 24.0 1001.0 -0.5 *
Ocimum gratissimum Leaf 23.0 43.0 -0.2 Charles, D.J. and Simon, J.E. 1992. A New Geraniol Chemotype of Ocimum gratissimum L. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 231-234.
Vitex agnus-castus Fruit 21.0 4000.0 0.3 *
Cinnamomum verum Bark 20.0 236.0 1.0 *
Pycnanthemum setosum Shoot 20.0 1209.0 -0.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Levisticum officinale Root 20.0 200.0 -0.7 *
Mentha pulegium Plant 20.0 520.0 -0.1 *
Mentha aquatica Leaf 18.0 68.0 -0.2 *
Pycnanthemum albescens Shoot 16.0 54.0 -0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Ocimum gratissimum Plant 15.0 155.0 -0.4 *
Thymus vulgaris Plant 15.0 1598.0 0.6 *
Sideritis mugronensis Flower 15.0 410.0 2.6 Manez, S., Jimenez, A., and Villar, A. 1991. Volatiles of Sideritis mugronensis Flower and Leaf. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 395-397.
Origanum majorana Plant 15.0 86.0 -0.4 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Hypericum perforatum Plant 13.0 245.0 -0.3 *
Anethum graveolens Seed 12.0 1001.0 -0.4 *
Daucus carota Seed 12.0 1300.0 -0.4 *
Citrus paradisi Pericarp 12.0 47.0 *
Artemisia annua Shoot 12.0 7840.0 0.6 *
Mentha arvensis var. piperascens Plant 10.0 300.0 -0.3 *
Thymus capitatus Plant 10.0 150.0 -0.4 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Cuminum cyminum Fruit 9.0 330.0 -0.6 *
Cuminum cyminum Seed 9.0 330.0 -0.5 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lycopus uniflorus Plant 8.0 22.0 -0.5 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum montanum Shoot 7.0 272.0 -0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Mentha longifolia Shoot 7.0 1065.0 -0.0 *
Salvia officinalis Plant 7.0 1540.0 0.6 *
Hedeoma drummondii Plant 7.0 6780.0 4.3 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pycnanthemum virginianum Shoot 6.0 145.0 -0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Leonurus cardiaca Plant 6.0 28.0 -0.5 *
Origanum vulgare Plant 6.0 143.0 -0.4 *
Eryngium foetidum Plant 5.0 25.0 -0.5 *
Eucalyptus citriodora Leaf 5.0 380.0 -0.2 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Mentha spicata Leaf 5.0 375.0 -0.2 *
Mentha x piperita Leaf 5.0 230.0 -0.2 *
Monarda didyma Plant 5.0 350.0 -0.2 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Satureja montana Plant 5.0 245.0 -0.3 *
Alpinia galanga Rhizome 5.0 555.0 0.2 *
Carum carvi Seed 4.0 540.0 -0.4 *
Mentha x rotundifolia Leaf 4.0 430.0 -0.2 *
Glechoma hederacea Plant 4.0 22.0 -0.5 *
Chrysanthemum x morifolium Plant 3.0 14.0 -0.5 Wealth of India.
Monarda fistulosa Plant 3.0 1823.0 0.8 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Valeriana officinalis Leaf 2.0 6095.0 0.2 Father Nature's Farmacy: The aggregate of all these three-letter citations.
Minthostachys mollis Shoot 2.0 4.0 -0.1 Alkire, B.H., Tucker, A.O., and Maciarello, M.J. 1994. Tipo (Minthostachys mollis (Lamiaceae): An Ecuadorian Mint. Econ. Bot. 48(1): 60-64.
Ocimum basilicum Plant 2.0 180.0 -0.4 *
Thymus serpyllum Plant 1.0 362.0 -0.2 *
Valeriana officinalis Root 1.0 500.0 -0.5 Father Nature's Farmacy: The aggregate of all these three-letter citations.
Pimpinella anisum Fruit 1.0 306.0 -0.6 *
Pelargonium graveolens Essential Oil 1.0 3.0 -0.6 *
Aloysia citrodora Plant 1.0 7.0 -0.5 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pimpinella anisum Seed 1.0 306.0 -0.5 *
Petroselinum crispum Seed 1.0 31080.0 2.9 *
Achillea millefolium Leaf 1.0 1000.0 -0.2 *
Peumus boldus Leaf 1.0 1000.0 -0.2 *
Agastache foeniculum Plant 1.0 35.0 -0.5 *
Pycnanthemum tenuifolium Shoot 1.0 1020.0 -0.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Micromeria fruticosa Leaf 1.0 390.0 -0.2 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Ageratum conyzoides Plant 0.8 6.5 -0.5 *
Hyssopus officinalis Leaf 0.1 1460.0 -0.1 *
Eucalyptus nova-anglica Leaf 0.1 1185.0 -0.1 Brophy, J. L., Lassak, E. V., & Boland, D. J. 1992. The Leaf Essential Oils of Eucalyptus nova-anglica. Deane & Maiden. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 29-32.
Sassafras albidum Leaf 0.1 5.0 -0.2 *
Salvia sclarea Plant -- 3.0 -0.5 Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 154.
Pimenta racemosa Leaf -- 950.0 -0.2 *
Murraya koenigii Leaf -- 9880.0 0.4 *
Eucalyptus largisparsa Leaf -- 2495.0 -0.1 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Coleus barbatus Stem Essent. Oil -- 66800.0 1.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Mentha spicata Shoot -- -- *
Valeriana officinalis Essential Oil -- -- *
Apium graveolens Stem Essent. Oil -- 14000.0 -1.0 *
Valeriana officinalis Rhizome Essent. Oil -- -- *
Leonotis leonurus Se -- 65.0 Pedro, L.G., Barroso, J.G., Marques, N.T., Ascensao, L., Pais, M.S.S. and Scheffer, J.J.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil from Sepals of Leonotis leonurus R. Br. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 451-3
Pycnanthemum verticillatum Shoot -- 63.0 -0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Stevia rebaudiana Flower -- 4.0 -0.8 Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Valeriana officinalis Root Essent. Oil -- 25000.0 -1.0 *
Calamintha nepeta Leaf -- 90.0 -0.2 Akgul, A., De Pooter, H.L., and De Buyck, L.F. 1991. The Essential Oils of Calamintha nepeta subsp. glandulosa and Ziziphora clinopodioides from Turkey. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 7-10.
Micromeria teneriffae Leaf -- 2030.0 -0.1 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Satureja cuneifolia Shoot -- 405.0 -0.1 Tumen, G. 1991. The Volatile Constituents of Satureja cuneifolia. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 365-366.
Stevia rebaudiana Leaf -- 5.0 -0.2 Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- 40.0 -0.1 Kerrola, K., Galambosi, B. and Kallio, H. 1994. Volatile Components and Odor Intensity of Four Phenotypes of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) J. Agric. Food Chem. 42: 776-781.
Cinnamomum verum Leaf Essent. Oil -- 2000.0 -0.7 *
Dracocephalum thymiflora Plant -- 2.0 -0.5 *
Calamintha nepeta Shoot -- 13.0 -0.1 Kirimer, N., Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T. and Kurkcuoglo, M. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Calamintha nepeta subsp. glandulosa. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4:189-190
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- 20.0 -0.1 Kerrola, K., Galambosi, B. and Kallio, H. 1994. Volatile Components and Odor Intensity of Four Phenotypes of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) J. Agric. Food Chem. 42: 776-781.
Cinnamomum verum Root Bark -- -- *
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- 30.0 -0.1 Kerrola, K., Galambosi, B. and Kallio, H. 1994. Volatile Components and Odor Intensity of Four Phenotypes of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) J. Agric. Food Chem. 42: 776-781.
Cinnamomum verum Bark Essent. Oil -- 2000.0 *
Pistacia lentiscus Resin, Exudate, Sap -- -- *
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- 80.0 -0.1 Kerrola, K., Galambosi, B. and Kallio, H. 1994. Volatile Components and Odor Intensity of Four Phenotypes of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) J. Agric. Food Chem. 42: 776-781.
Cinnamomum verum Stem Bark -- -- *
Houttuynia cordata Shoot Essent. Oil -- -- *
Artemisia herba-alba Plant -- -- *
Eucalyptus odorata Leaf -- 190.0 -0.2 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus fasiculosa Leaf -- 90.0 -0.2 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- 70.0 -0.1 Kerrola, K., Galambosi, B. and Kallio, H. 1994. Volatile Components and Odor Intensity of Four Phenotypes of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) J. Agric. Food Chem. 42: 776-781.
Satureja montana Essential Oil -- 6600.0 -0.5 *
Houttuynia cordata Essential Oil -- -- *
Micromeria fruticosa Shoot -- 195.0 -0.1 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Thymus funkii Shoot -- 425.0 -0.1 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Gossypium sp Plant -- -- *
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- 40.0 -0.1 Kerrola, K., Galambosi, B. and Kallio, H. 1994. Volatile Components and Odor Intensity of Four Phenotypes of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) J. Agric. Food Chem. 42: 776-781.
Vitex agnus-castus Leaf -- 21.0 -0.2 Ekundayo, O., Laakso, I., Holopainen, M., Hiltunen, R., Oguntimein, B., and Kauppinen, V. 1990. The Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Leaf Oil of Vitex agnus-castus L. J. Essential Oil Research, 2: 115-119.
Micromeria fruticosa Shoot -- 195.0 -0.1 Fleisher, Z. and Fleisher, A. 1991. The Essential Oil of Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce subsp. barbata (Boiss et. Ky.), P.H. Davis. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part VII. J. Ess. Oil Res 3: 477-479.
Thymus funkii Shoot -- 425.0 -0.1 Vila, R., et al. 1995. Composition and study of the variability of the essential oil of Thymus funkii Cousson. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10(6): 379-383.
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- 60.0 -0.1 Kerrola, K., Galambosi, B. and Kallio, H. 1994. Volatile Components and Odor Intensity of Four Phenotypes of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) J. Agric. Food Chem. 42: 776-781.
Pelargonium roseum Shoot -- 126.0 -0.1 *
Monarda lindheimeri Plant -- 211.0 -0.3 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- -- Kerrola, K., Galambosi, B. and Kallio, H. 1994. Volatile Components and Odor Intensity of Four Phenotypes of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) J. Agric. Food Chem. 42: 776-781.
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- 40.0 -0.1 Kerrola, K., Galambosi, B. and Kallio, H. 1994. Volatile Components and Odor Intensity of Four Phenotypes of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) J. Agric. Food Chem. 42: 776-781.
Rosmarinus officinalis Leaf -- 34.0 -0.2 Soliman, F.M., El-Kashoury, M.M., Fathy, M.M. and Gonaid, M.H. 1994. Analysis and Biological Activity of the Essential Oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. from Egypt. Flavour and Fragrance J. 9: 29-33.
Rosmarinus officinalis Leaf -- 34.0 -0.2 Soliman, F.M., El-Kashoury, M.M., Fathy, M.M. and Gonaid, M.H. 1994. Analysis and Biological Activity of the Essential Oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. from Egypt. Flavour and Fragrance J. 9: 29-33.
Agathosma betulina Leaf -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Hyssopus officinalis Essential Oil -- -- *
Ballota nigra Plant -- 3.0 -0.5 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Rosmarinus officinalis Shoot -- 565.0 -0.1 Tucker, A. O. and Maciarello, M. J. 1998. The essential oils of some rosemary cultivars. Flavor and Fragrance Journal, 1: 137-142. 1986.
Foeniculum vulgare Root Essent. Oil -- 10000.0 -1.1 Jim Duke's personal files.
Eucalyptus tetraptera Leaf -- 4355.0 0.1 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Tagetes minuta Plant -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Elsholtzia polystachya Leaf -- 1.2 -0.2 Mathela,C.S., Melkani,A.B., Bisht,J.C., Pant,A.K., Bestmann,H.J., Erler,J., Kobold,U., Rauscher,J. and Vostrowsky,O. 1992. Chemical Varieties of Essential Oils from Elsholtzia polystachya from Two Different Locations in India. Planta Medica 58: 376-379.
Eucalyptus bridgesiana Leaf -- 255.0 -0.2 Singh, A. K., Gupta, K. C., & Brophy, J. J. 1991. Volatile Constituents of the Essential Oil of Eucalyptus bridgesiana Growing in India. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 3: 449-450.
Tanacetum parthenium Fruit Essent. Oil -- 2000.0 -0.8 *
Acinos suaveolens Shoot -- 9500.0 0.8 Jim Duke's personal files.
Elsholtzia polystachya Leaf -- 1.2 -0.2 Mathela,C.S., Melkani,A.B., Bisht,J.C., Pant,A.K., Bestmann,H.J., Erler,J., Kobold,U., Rauscher,J. and Vostrowsky,O. 1992. Chemical Varieties of Essential Oils from Elsholtzia polystachya from Two Different Locations in India. Planta Medica 58: 376-379.
Teucrium salviastrum Shoot -- 0.2 -0.1 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Tanacetum parthenium Essential Oil -- 10000.0 -0.5 *
Dictamnus albus Shoot -- 0.7 -0.1 Baser, K.H.C., Kosar, M.Malyer, H. & Ozek, T. 1994. The Essential Oil Composition of Dictamnus albus from Turkey. Planta Med. 60:481-2
Teucrium gnaphalodes Shoot -- 8.0 -0.1 Perez-Alonso, M.J. Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Lopez-Saez, J.A. 1993. The Essential Oils of Two Iberian Teucrium Species. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 397-402.
Dictamnus albus Shoot -- 1.0 -0.1 Baser, K.H.C., Kosar, M.Malyer, H. & Ozek, T. 1994. The Essential Oil Composition of Dictamnus albus from Turkey. Planta Med. 60:481-2
Lantana camara Leaf -- -- *
Dictamnus albus Shoot -- 0.7 -0.1 Baser, K.H.C., Kosar, M.Malyer, H. & Ozek, T. 1994. The Essential Oil Composition of Dictamnus albus from Turkey. Planta Med. 60:481-2
Micromeria thymifolia Leaf -- 65.0 -0.2 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Eucalyptus populnea Leaf -- 71.0 -0.2 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus punctata Shoot -- 3075.0 0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Carum carvi Plant -- 20.0 -0.5 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Teucrium polium Plant -- -- Rizk, A.F.M., The Phytochemistry of the Flora of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar, Kingprint, Richmond, UK, 1986.
Telosma cordata Flower -- 31.0 -0.6 K. Furukawa, T. Arai, S. Hashimoto, (1993); Volatile components of Telosma cordata Merrill flowers, Flavour Fragr. J., Vol 8, 221-223.
Hedeoma reverchonii Plant -- 525.0 -0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Eucalyptus grandis Leaf Essent. Oil -- 689000.0 3.0 *
Tamarindus indica Fruit Essent. Oil -- -- *
Pycnanthemum curvipes Shoot -- 84.0 -0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Origanum vulgare Plant -- 1.0 -0.5 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Mentha pulegium Shoot Essent. Oil -- -- *
Chrysanthemum parthenium Shoot -- 15.0 -0.1 Hendriks, H., Bos, R., and Woerdenbag, H. J. 1996. The Essential Oil of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz-Bip. Flavor and Fragrance Journal 11(6): 367-71.
Nardostachys jatamansi Plant -- -- *
Mentha pulegium Leaf Essent. Oil -- 7000.0 -0.7 *
Camellia sinensis Leaf -- -- *
Eucalyptus maculata Shoot -- 7330.0 0.6 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Satureja grandiflora Shoot -- 4.0 -0.1 Carnat, A., Chossegros, A., and Lamaison, J. 1991. The Essential Oil of Satureja grandiflora (L.) Scheele from France. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 361-362
Pilocarpus jaborandi Leaf -- 125.0 -0.2 *
Cymbopogon winterianus Plant -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Cinnamomum aromaticum Bark -- -- Wealth of India.
Alpinia galanga Leaf Essent. Oil -- 11600.0 -0.7 *
Ocimum gratissimum Shoot -- 55.0 -0.1 Vostrowsky, O., Garbe, W., Bestmann, H.J. and Maia, J.G.S. 1990. Essential Oil of Alfavaca, Ocimum gratissimum, from Brazilian Amazon. Zeitschr. Naturforschung 45(C): 1073-6.
Sideritis pauli Shoot -- 1540.0 0.0 Burzaco, A., Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1992. Essential Oil Analysis of Sideritis pauli Pau. FFJ7: 47-8. 1992.
Alpinia galanga Rhizome Essent. Oil -- 11600.0 -0.5 *
Eucalyptus dolichorhyncha Leaf -- 1425.0 -0.1 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- 170.0 -0.1 Tsankova, E.T., Konatchiev, A.N. and Genova, E.M. 1993. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils of Two Hyssopus officinalis cultivars. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 609-611.
Satureja odora Shoot -- 22.0 -0.1 Zygadlo, J.A., Merino. E.F., Maestri, D.M., Guzman, C.A. and Espinar, L.A. 1993. The Essential Oils of Satureja odora and Satureja parvifolia from Argentina. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 549-51.
Rosa gallica Essential Oil -- -- *
Hyssopus officinalis Shoot -- 170.0 -0.1 Tsankova, E.T., Konatchiev, A.N. and Genova, E.M. 1993. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils of Two Hyssopus officinalis cultivars. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 609-611.
Eucalyptus albens Shoot -- 315.0 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Ravensara aromatica Leaf -- 60.0 -0.2 *
Pilocarpus microphyllus Leaf -- 25.0 -0.2 *
Angelica archangelica Root Essent. Oil -- -- *
Stachys germanica Plant -- 67.0 -0.4 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Isanthus brachiatus Plant -- 684.0 0.0 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Angelica archangelica Seed Essent. Oil -- 149000.0 0.3 *
Angelica archangelica Fruit -- -- *
Juglans nigra Fruit -- -- *
Juglans nigra Essential Oil -- 17000.0 -0.4 *
Eucalyptus camaldulensis Shoot -- 410.0 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Vetiveria zizanioides Root -- 15.0 -0.8 *
Tagetes filifolia Shoot -- 4.7 -0.1 *
Pinus sylvestris Resin, Exudate, Sap -- -- *
Centella asiatica Essential Oil -- 2000.0 -0.5 Jim Duke's personal files.
Centella asiatica Shoot -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Cinnamomum verum Leaf -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Laurus nobilis Flower -- -- -0.8 *
Pinus walliciana Leaf -- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Elsholtzia blanda Shoot -- 0.4 -0.1 Bestman, H.J., Rauscher, J., Vostrowsky O., Pant, A.K., Dev. V., Perihar, R. and Mathela, C.S. 1992. Constituents of the Essential Oil of Elsholtsia blanda Benth. (Labiatae). J. Ess. Oils Res. 4: 121-124
Citrus paradisi Fruit -- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Moldavica thymiflora Plant -- 2.0 -0.5 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Ptychopetalum olacoides Root Essent. Oil -- 259000.0 1.7 Uber Bucek, E., Fournier, G., Dadoun, H. 1987. Volatile Constituents of Ptychopetalum olacoides Root Oil. Planta Med. 53, 2: 231.
Laurus nobilis Bark -- 27.0 -1.0 *
Lavandula angustifolia Plant -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Eucalyptus globulus Essential Oil -- 52000.0 -0.1 *
Eucalyptus saligna Shoot -- 370.0 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Laurus nobilis Wood -- -- *
Cleistocalyx fullageri Leaf -- 59488.0 3.6 *
Eucalyptus cuprea Leaf -- 1595.0 -0.1 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus globulus Fruit Essent. Oil -- 40900.0 -0.3 *
Satureja parvifolia Shoot -- 20.0 -0.1 Zygadlo, J.A., Merino. E.F., Maestri, D.M., Guzman, C.A. and Espinar, L.A. 1993. The Essential Oils of Satureja odora and Satureja parvifolia from Argentina. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 549-51.
Eucalyptus maideni Shoot -- 3000.0 0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Vitex agnus-castus Fruit Essent. Oil -- 6.6 -0.8 Jim Duke's personal files.
Vitex agnus-castus Leaf Essent. Oil -- 43200.0 -0.5 Jim Duke's personal files.
Vitex agnus-castus Flower -- -- *
Myroxylon balsamum Plant -- -- *
Piper auritum Leaf -- -- Tramil
Teucrium scorodonia Shoot -- 0.08 -0.1 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Ocimum canum Shoot -- -- =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp
Lindera benzoin Leaf -- 2.0 -0.2 *
Origanum sipyleum Shoot -- 325.0 -0.1 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kurkcuoglu, M. and Tumen, G. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Origanum sipyleum of Turkish Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 139-142.
Eucalyptus desquamata Leaf -- 3000.0 -0.0 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Ferula assa-foetida Essential Oil -- -- *
Origanum sipyleum Shoot -- 25.0 -0.1 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kurkcuoglu, M. and Tumen, G. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Origanum sipyleum of Turkish Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 139-142.
Origanum sipyleum Shoot -- 725.0 -0.1 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kurkcuoglu, M. and Tumen, G. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Origanum sipyleum of Turkish Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 139-142.
Angelica sinensis Root -- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Barosma betulina Leaf -- -- *
Origanum sipyleum Shoot -- 325.0 -0.1 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kurkcuoglu, M. and Tumen, G. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Origanum sipyleum of Turkish Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res. 4: 139-142.
Tagetes filifolia Leaf Essent. Oil -- -- Zygadlo, J. S., Guzman, C. A., Grosso, N. R. 1994. Antifungal Properties of the Leaf Oils of Tagetes Minuta L. and T. filifolia Lag. J. Essent. Oil Res. 6 6: 617-621. Cat Quim Org Fac Cien Exact Univ Nacion Cordoba Cordoba 5000 Argentina.
Monarda russeliana Plant -- 14.0 -0.5 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Centella asiatica Plant -- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Thymus broussonettii Shoot -- 860.0 -0.1 Tantaoui-Elaraki, A., Lattaoui, N., Errifi, A. and Benjilali, B. 1993. Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oils of Thymus broussonettii, T. zygis and T. saturejoides. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 45-53.
Origanum vulgare Plant -- 1.0 -0.5 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Apium graveolens Fruit Essent. Oil -- 10000.0 -0.7 *
Amomum xanthioides Seed -- -- *
Apium graveolens Leaf Essent. Oil -- 2000.0 -0.7 *
Pimenta dioica Fruit -- 14.0 -0.7 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Apium graveolens Root Essent. Oil -- 179000.0 0.8 *
Eucalyptus behriana Leaf -- 65.0 -0.2 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Salvia officinalis Et -- 35000.0 1.0 *
Satureja subspicata Plant -- 30.0 -0.5 Stanic, G., Petricic, J., and Blazevic, N. 1991. Gas Chromatographic Investigations of Essential Oils of Satureja montana and Satureja subspicata from Yugoslavia. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 153-158.
Thymus zygis Shoot -- 32.0 -0.1 Jimenez, J., Navarro, M.C., Montilla, M.P., Martin, A. and Martinez, A. 1993. Thymus zygis Oil: Its Effects on CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Free Radical Scavenger Activity. JEO5: 153-8.
Melaleuca leucadendra Leaf -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Eucalyptus sparsa Leaf -- 2495.0 -0.1 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Mentha aquatica Shoot -- 8.0 -0.1 Umemoto, K., Arai, T., Nii, H. and Furukawa, K. 1993. A New Chemotype of Mentha aquatica Containing Sesquiterpene Alcohols as Major Components. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 67(10): 1417-1419.
Thymus zygis Shoot -- 32.0 -0.1 Jimenez, J., Navarro, M.C., Montilla, M.P., Martin, A. and Martinez, A. 1993. Thymus zygis Oil: Its Effects on CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Free Radical Scavenger Activity. JEO5: 153-8.
Apium graveolens Seed -- 300.0 -0.5 *
Mentha aquatica Shoot -- 9.0 -0.1 Umemoto, K., Arai, T., Nii, H. and Furukawa, K. 1993. A New Chemotype of Mentha aquatica Containing Sesquiterpene Alcohols as Major Components. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 67(10): 1417-1419.
Mentha aquatica Shoot -- 14.0 -0.1 Umemoto, K., Arai, T., Nii, H. and Furukawa, K. 1993. A New Chemotype of Mentha aquatica Containing Sesquiterpene Alcohols as Major Components. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 67(10): 1417-1419.
Ageratum conyzoides Shoot -- 420.0 -0.1 R. Vera, (1993); Chemical composition of the essential oil Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae) from Reunion, Flavour Fragr. J., Vol.8, 257-260.
Mentha aquatica Shoot -- 13.0 -0.1 Umemoto, K., Arai, T., Nii, H. and Furukawa, K. 1993. A New Chemotype of Mentha aquatica Containing Sesquiterpene Alcohols as Major Components. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 67(10): 1417-1419.
Mentha aquatica Shoot -- 8.0 -0.1 Umemoto, K., Arai, T., Nii, H. and Furukawa, K. 1993. A New Chemotype of Mentha aquatica Containing Sesquiterpene Alcohols as Major Components. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 67(10): 1417-1419.
Lycopersicon esculentum Fruit -- -- *
Origanum majorana Essential Oil -- 19000.0 -0.4 *
Piper nigrum Fruit -- 3810.0 0.3 *
Micromeria myrtifolia Shoot -- 0.3 -0.1 Ozek, T., Kirimer, N., and Baser, K.H.C. 1992. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria myrtifolia Boiss. et Hohen. J. Ess. Oil Res., 4: 79-80.
Croton eluteria Bark -- -- *
Thymus vulgaris Essential Oil -- 8000.0 -0.5 *
Larrea tridentata Essential Oil -- -- *
Eucalyptus siderophloia Shoot -- 150.0 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Humulus lupulus Essential Oil -- -- *
Eucalyptus angulosa Leaf -- 835.0 -0.2 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Eucalyptus erythrandra Leaf -- 4970.0 0.1 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Melaleuca alternifolia Leaf Essent. Oil -- 25000.0 -0.6 *
Eucalyptus melliodora Shoot -- 3000.0 0.2 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Lepechinia calycina Plant -- 325.0 -0.3 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Origanum onites Plant -- 16.0 -0.5 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Eucalyptus ochrophloia Leaf -- 21.0 -0.2 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Melaleuca alternifolia Root Essent. Oil -- 9800.0 -1.1 *
Origanum vulgare Essential Oil -- 14300.0 -0.4 *
Origanum onites Shoot -- 60.0 -0.1 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Melaleuca alternifolia Resin, Exudate, Sap -- -- *
Magnolia fargesii Flower -- -- *
Origanum onites Shoot -- 60.0 -0.1 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Calamintha nepeta Plant -- 40.0 -0.5 J. Ethnopharmacology, 39: 167.
Teucrium kotschyanum Leaf -- -- -0.2 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Cymbopogon citratus Plant -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Schinus molle Fruit -- -- *
Melaleuca viridiflora Leaf -- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Monarda citriodora Flower -- 115.0 0.1 Collins, J.E., Bishop, C.D., Deans, S.G. and Svoboda, K.P. 1994. Composition of the Essential Oil from the Leaves and Flowers of Monarda citriodora var. citriodora grown in the United Kingdom. J. Ess. Oil Res. 6: 27-9.
Cunila origanoides Shoot -- 812.0 -0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pimenta dioica Leaf Essent. Oil -- -- *
Monarda citriodora Leaf -- 65.0 -0.2 Collins, J.E., Bishop, C.D., Deans, S.G. and Svoboda, K.P. 1994. Composition of the Essential Oil from the Leaves and Flowers of Monarda citriodora var. citriodora grown in the United Kingdom. J. Ess. Oil Res. 6: 27-9.
Commiphora myrrha Resin, Exudate, Sap -- -- Guenther, E., The Essential Oils, 6 volumes, D. van Nostrand, New York, 1948-1952.
Panax ginseng Root -- -- *
Eucalyptus ceratocorys Leaf -- 3185.0 -0.0 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Cinnamomum camphora Plant -- -- *
Panax ginseng Root Essent. Oil -- -- *
Boswellia serrata Essential Oil -- -- *
Foeniculum vulgare Plant -- 480.0 -0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Salvia canariensis Leaf -- 670.0 -0.2 Casnigueral,S., Iglesias,J., Vila,R., Virgili,A. and Ibanez,C.1994. The Essential Oil from Leaves of Salvia canariensis L. Flav. & Frag. J. 9:201-204. S. Canigueral, Facultat de Farmacia, Universitat de Barcelona, Ave.Diagonal 643,E-08028, Barcelone Spain
Thymus capitatus Shoot -- 4.0 -0.1 Biondi, D., Cianci, P., Geraci, C. and Ruberto, G. 1993. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Sicilian Aromatic Plants. Flav. & Frag. J. 8: 331-7.
Satureja thymbra Shoot -- 480.0 -0.1 Lagouri, V., Blekas, G., Tsimidou, M., Kokkini, S., and Boskou, D. 1993. Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils from Oregano Plants Grown Wild in Greece. Z. Lebensm Unters Forsch 197: 20-23.
Psidium guajava Pericarp Essent. Oil -- -- *
Psidium guajava Leaf Essent. Oil -- 378000.0 1.3 *
Teucrium oxylepis Shoot -- 0.18 -0.1 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Psidium guajava Essential Oil -- -- *
Monarda clinopodia Plant -- 65.0 -0.4 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Citrus sinensis Fruit Juice -- 0.22 -1.0 *
Ribes nigrum Fruit -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Ribes nigrum Leaf -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Marrubium vulgare Essential Oil -- -- *
Daucus carota Root -- 48.0 -0.8 *
Ferula gummosa Plant -- -- *
Teucrium asiaticum Shoot -- 0.18 -0.1 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Curcuma longa Essential Oil -- 5300.0 -0.5 *
Citrus limon Pericarp -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Daucus carota Shoot -- 12.0 -0.1 *
Lepechinia schiediana Plant -- 200.0 -0.3 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Citrus limon Fruit Essent. Oil -- 7000.0 -0.8 Jim Duke's personal files.
Crocus sativus Silk Stigma Style -- -- *
Origanum vulgare Shoot -- 225.0 -0.1 Lagouri, V., Blekas, G., Tsimidou, M., Kokkini, S., and Boskou, D. 1993. Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils from Oregano Plants Grown Wild in Greece. Z. Lebensm Unters Forsch 197: 20-23.
Magnolia kobus Flower -- -- *
Abies alba Resin, Exudate, Sap -- -- *
Eucalyptus sideroxylon Shoot -- 300.0 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Annona squamosa Plant -- -- *
Curcuma longa Tuber -- -- *
Curcuma longa Rhizome -- -- *
Citrus limon Petiole -- 90.0 *
Artemisia vulgaris Plant -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Monarda didyma Flower -- 18.0 -0.7 Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 6: 80.
Eucalyptus moluccana Shoot -- 935.0 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus lansdowneana Leaf -- 420.0 -0.2 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus viridis Leaf -- 55.0 -0.2 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Myrica cerifera Leaf -- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Callicarpa americana Leaf -- 28.0 -0.2 *
Micromeria varia Shoot -- 585.0 -0.1 Pedro, L.G., et al. 1995. Composition of the Essential oil of Micromeria varia Benth. ssp. thymoides (Sol. ex Lowe) Perez var. thymoides, and endemic species of the Madeira Archipelago. flav. & Fragr. J. 10(3): 199-202.
Micromeria varia Shoot -- 585.0 -0.1 *
Helianthus annuus Plant -- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Tanacetum parthenium Shoot -- 15.0 -0.1 Hendriks, H., Bos, R., and Woerdenbag, H. J. 1996. The Essential Oil of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz-Bip. Flavor and Fragrance Journal 11(6): 367-71.
Pelargonium citrosum Shoot -- 0.6 -0.1 Matsuda, B. M., et al. 1996. Essential Oil Analysis and Field Evaluation of the Citrosa Plant 'Pelargonium citrosum' as a Repellent Against Populations of Aedes Mosquitoes. J. Am. Mosq. Contr. Assoc. 12(1):69-74.
Lippia alba Plant -- -- Grenand, P., Moretti, C., and Jacquemin, H. 1987. Pharmacopees Traditionnelles en Guyane. l'ORSTROM, Paris. 569 pp.
Eucalyptus citriodora Shoot -- -- *
Satureja obovata Leaf -- 425.0 -0.2 Arrebola, M.L., Navaro, M.C., Jimenez, J. and Ocana, F.A. 1994. Variations in Yield and Composition of the Essential Oil of Satureja obovata. Phytochemistry 35(1): 83.
Satureja obovata Leaf -- 330.0 -0.2 Arrebola, M.L., Navaro, M.C., Jimenez, J. and Ocana, F.A. 1994. Variations in Yield and Composition of the Essential Oil of Satureja obovata. Phytochemistry 35(1): 83.
Salvia dorisiana Shoot -- -- -0.1 Tucker, A.O. & Maciarello, M.J. 1994. The Essential Oil of Salvia dorisiana Standley. J. Ess. Oil Res. 6: 97-8.
Satureja obovata Leaf -- 130.0 -0.2 Arrebola, M.L., Navaro, M.C., Jimenez, J. and Ocana, F.A. 1994. Variations in Yield and Composition of the Essential Oil of Satureja obovata. Phytochemistry 35(1): 83.
Ficus carica Leaf Essent. Oil -- -- *
Teucrium micropodioides Leaf -- 265.0 -0.2 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Satureja obovata Leaf -- 225.0 -0.2 Arrebola, M.L., Navaro, M.C., Jimenez, J. and Ocana, F.A. 1994. Variations in Yield and Composition of the Essential Oil of Satureja obovata. Phytochemistry 35(1): 83.
Hesperis matronalis Flower -- -- Nielsen, J. K., Jakobsen, H. B., Friis, P., Hansen, K., Moller, J., Olsen, C. E. 1995. Asynchronous Rhythmus in the Emission of Volatiles from Hesperis matronalis Flowers. Phytochemistry, 38(4): 847-851.
Thymus riatarum Shoot -- 230.0 -0.1 Iglesias, J., Vila, R., Canigueral, S., Bellakdhar, and Il Idrissi, A. 1991. Analysis of the Essential Oil of Thymus riatarum. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 43-4.
Aniba rosaeodora Essential Oil -- -- *
Eucalyptus leucoxylon Leaf -- 720.0 -0.2 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Marrubium vulgare Plant -- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Acinos alpinus Shoot -- 0.5 -0.1 Velasco-Negueruela,A., Perez-Alonso,M.J., Jiminez,S.M. and Garcia,F.M. 1993. The Volatile Constituents of Acinus alpinus (L.) Moench ssp. meridionalis (Nyman). P.W. Ball Growing in Spain. Flav. & Frag. J. 8:127-130.)
Sideritis athoa Shoot -- 160.0 -0.1 Ozek, T., Baser, K.H.C. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Essential Oil of Sideritis athoa Papanikolaou Et Kokkini. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 669-670.
Citrus mitis Fruit Juice -- 5.6 1.0 *
Acinos alpinus Shoot -- 0.5 -0.1 Velasco-Negueruela,A., Perez-Alonso,M.J., Jiminez,S.M. and Garcia,F.M. 1993. The Volatile Constituents of Acinus alpinus (L.) Moench ssp. meridionalis (Nyman). P.W. Ball Growing in Spain. Flav. & Frag. J. 8:127-130.)
Coridothymus capitatus Shoot -- 44.0 -0.1 Lagouri, V., Blekas, G., Tsimidou, M., Kokkini, S., and Boskou, D. 1993. Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils from Oregano Plants Grown Wild in Greece. Z. Lebensm Unters Forsch 197: 20-23.
Eucalyptus forrestiana Leaf -- 10110.0 0.4 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Citrus paradisi Leaf -- 55.0 -0.2 *
Tetraclinis articulata Resin, Exudate, Sap -- -- *
Origanum vulgare Plant -- 730.0 0.0 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Zingiber officinale Rhizome -- 720.0 1.1 *
Hyptis suaveolens Plant -- 215.0 -0.3 Recently became Internat. J. Crude Drug Res. 28(1,2,3,4):1990, page 74.
Juniperus communis Fruit Essent. Oil -- -- *
Hyptis suaveolens Shoot -- 48.0 -0.1 Mallvarapu, G.R., Ramesh, S., Kaul, P.N., Bhattacharya, A.K., and Rao, B.R.R. 1993. The Essential Oil of Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 321.
Juniperus communis Essential Oil -- 336000.0 2.4 *
Hyptis suaveolens Shoot -- 48.0 -0.1 Mallvarapu, G.R., Ramesh, S., Kaul, P.N., Bhattacharya, A.K., and Rao, B.R.R. 1993. The Essential Oil of Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 321.
Magnolia officinalis Plant -- -- *
Perilla frutescens Plant -- -- J.S. Glasby Dict.Pls Containing 2ndary Metabolite. 1991.
Juniperus communis Leaf Essent. Oil -- -- *
Cuminum cyminum Seed Essent. Oil -- 3000.0 -0.7 *
Agastache rugosa Tissue Culture -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Agastache rugosa Essential Oil -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Satureja glabella Plant -- 40.0 -0.5 *
Nepeta racemosa Shoot -- 10.0 -0.1 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Akgul, A. and Tumen, G. 1993. Composition of the Essential Oil of Nepeta racemosa Lam. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 215-7.
Eucalyptus occidentalis Shoot -- 1340.0 -0.0 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Amomum compactum Seed -- 960.0 -0.4 Duke, J. A. and duCellier, J. L. 1993. CRC Handbook of Alternative Cash Crops. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL 33431. 536 pp. US $312.50.
Zea mays Husk Essent. Oil -- -- *
Nepeta racemosa Shoot -- 70.0 -0.1 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Akgul, A. and Tumen, G. 1993. Composition of the Essential Oil of Nepeta racemosa Lam. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 215-7.
Eucalyptus astringens Shoot -- 4325.0 0.3 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Houttuynia cordata Plant -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Chamaemelum nobile Plant -- -- *
Pimenta dioica Leaf -- 20.0 -0.2 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Thymus longicaulis Shoot -- 3.0 -0.1 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Melaleuca cajuputi Leaf -- 250.0 -0.2 *
Thymus longicaulis Shoot -- 635.0 -0.1 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Perilla frutescens Shoot Essent. Oil -- 7000.0 -0.5 Nguyen, X. D., La, D. M., Lu'u, D. C., Leclercq, P. A. 1995. Essential Oil Constituents from the Aerial Parts of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton. J. Essent. Oil Res., 7(4): 429-432.
Thymus longicaulis Shoot -- 3.0 -0.1 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Satureja hortensis Plant -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Teucrium oxylepis Shoot -- 0.35 -0.1 Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Melaleuca leucadendra Plant -- -- *
Eucalyptus cladocalyx Shoot -- 260.0 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Thymus saturejoides Shoot -- 1750.0 0.0 Tantaoui-Elaraki, A., Lattaoui, N., Errifi, A. and Benjilali, B. 1993. Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oils of Thymus broussonettii, T. zygis and T. saturejoides. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 45-53.
Boswellia serrata Resin, Exudate, Sap -- 9920.0 -1.2 Sabinsa: A series of well documented proprietary PR booklets, e.g.Sabinsa Corps. 1998. Bronchial Asthma - Its etiology and control with traditional herbal extracts. Sabinsa Corporation. Piscataway, NJ. 49 pp.
Myrrhis odorata Essential Oil -- 100.0 -0.6 Hussain, R.A., et. al. 1990. Sweetening Agents of Plant Origin: Phenylpropanoid Constituents of Seven Sweet-Tasting Plants. Econ. Bot. 44 2: 174-182. Program Collab. Res. Pharm. Sci. Coll. Pharmacy Univ. Illinois at Chicago IL 60680, USA.
Polygonum hydropiper Essential Oil -- -- *
Teucrium cyprium Leaf -- 430.0 -0.2 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Asiasarum heterotropoides Root -- -- *
Mangifera indica Flower -- -- *
Artemisia salsoloides Shoot -- 3300.0 0.2 V. Kaul, P. Weyerstahl, H. Wahlberg, H. Marschall, (1992); Volatile constituents of the essential oil and the absolute of Aremisia salsoloides Willd. from Ladakh,Flavour and Fragrance journal, Vol.7, 299-305.
Laurus nobilis Leaf -- 125.0 -0.2 *
Ocimum tenuiflorum Leaf -- -- =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp
Pimpinella anisum Essential Oil -- -- *
Juniperus sabina Plant -- -- *
Salvia gilliesii Shoot -- 55.0 -0.1 Velasco-Negueruela, A. et al. 1993. The Essential Oil of Salvia gilliesii Benth. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 319-320.
Eucalyptus stoatei Leaf -- 3290.0 -0.0 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Myrrhis odorata Plant -- -- Gruenwald, J. et al. 1998. PDR for Herbal Medicine. 1st ed. Medical Economics Co., Montvale, NJ. 1244 pp. (abbreviated as PHR or Physicians Herbal Reference in my mind)
Anethum graveolens Essential Oil -- -- *
Pinus sylvestris Leaf Essent. Oil -- 312000.0 1.0 *
Elsholtzia cristata Shoot -- 0.1 -0.1 Kobold, U., Vostrowsky, O., Bestmann, H.J., Bisht, J.C., Pant, A.K., Melkani, A.B. and Mathela, C.S. 1987. Terpenoids from Elsholtzia Species; II. Constituents of Essential Oil from a New Chemotype of Elsholtzia cristata. Planta Medica 1987: 268-271.
Eucalyptus globulus Shoot -- 119000.0 11.7 *
Pinus sylvestris Essential Oil -- -- *
Anethum graveolens Seed Essent. Oil -- -- *
Eucalyptus intertexta Leaf -- 1920.0 -0.1 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Pinus sylvestris Flower -- -- *
Pinus sylvestris Plant -- -- *
Pinus sylvestris Twig -- -- *
Curcuma longa Rhizome Essent. Oil -- 5300.0 -0.9 *
Eucalyptus blakelyi Shoot -- 0.1 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus oviformis Shoot -- 315.0 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus botryoides Shoot -- 820.0 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Tanacetum vulgare Plant -- -- *
Eucalyptus porosa Leaf -- 2100.0 -0.1 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Eucalyptus melanophloia Leaf -- 6.0 -0.2 Bignell, C.M., Dunlop, P.J., Brophy, J.J., and Jackson, J.F. 1995. Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus. Part VI. Subjenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Adnataria. Flavour and Fragrance J. 10(6):359-364
Petroselinum crispum Leaf -- 5.0 -0.2 *
Trichostemma dichotomum Shoot -- 35.0 -0.1 Tucker, A.O. and Maciarello, M.J. 1990. The Essential Oil of Trichostemma dichotomum. J. Ess. Oil Res. 2: 149-150.
Rosa centifolia Essential Oil -- -- *
Elettaria cardamomum Root Essent. Oil -- 123000.0 0.1 *
Piper nigrum Essential Oil -- -- *
Eucalyptus citriodora Essential Oil -- -- *
Vaccinium corymbosum Fruit -- -- *
Micromeria croatica Leaf -- 90.0 -0.2 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Boswellia sacra Essential Oil -- 410000.0 3.0 Wang, W., Zhu, Y. X., Liu, L. Z., Ling, D. K., Qin, X. L., Tian, J. G. 1993. Analysis of the Chemical Constitutents of Essential Oil of Boswellia carterii Birdwood from Somali. Yaowu Fenxi Zazhi 13 3: 170-173.
Magnolia denudata Bark -- -- *
Piper nigrum Seed Essent. Oil -- -- *
Origanum vulgare Plant -- 2.0 -0.5 Sezik, E., Tumen, G., Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1993. Essential Oil Composition of Four Origanum vulgare Subspecies of Anatolian Origin. J. Ess. Oil Res., 5: 425-431.
Myristica fragrans Leaf Essent. Oil -- -- *
Petroselinum crispum Fruit -- -- *
Magnolia denudata Bulb -- -- *
Collinsonia canadensis Plant -- -- *
Aesculus hippocastanum Flower Essent. Oil -- 177000.0 1.0 Jim Duke's personal files.
Boswellia sacra Resin Essent. Oil -- 35000.0 Abdel Wahab, S. M., Aboutabl, E. A., El-Zalabani, S. M., Fouad, H. A., De Pooter, H. L., El-Fallaha, B. 1987. The Essential Oil of Olibanum. Plant Med. 53 (4): 382-384.
Petroselinum crispum Root -- -- *
Magnolia denudata Flower -- -- *
Agathosma betulina Leaf Essent. Oil -- -- *
Acorus calamus Rhizome -- 280.0 -1.3 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Myristica fragrans Seed -- -- *
Petroselinum crispum Seed Essent. Oil -- 444000.0 2.3 *
Magnolia denudata Leaf -- -- *
Myrciaria dubia Fruit -- -- *
Teucrium pseudoscorodonia Shoot -- -- Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Perez-Alonso, M.J. 1990. The Volatiles of Six Teucrium Species from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Phytochemistry 29(4): 1165-9.
Magnolia denudata Twig -- -- *
Eucalyptus dealbata Shoot -- 235.0 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Thymus mastichina Plant -- 260.0 -0.3 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Thymus x citriodorus Plant -- 50.0 -0.4 Stahl-Biskup, E. and Holthuijzen, J. 1995. Essential oil and glycosidally bound volatiles of lemon-scented thyme, Thymus x citriodorus (Pers.) Schreb. Flav. & Fragr. J. 10: 225-229.
Hedychium flavum Shoot -- 590.0 -0.1 *
Capsicum annuum Fruit -- -- *
Juniperus virginiana Leaf -- -- *
Origanum syriacum Shoot -- 265.0 -0.1 Fleisher, A. & Fleisher, Z. 1991. Chemical Composition of Origanum syriacum L. Essential Oil. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 121-123.
Citrus aurantium Plant -- -- *
Cinnamomum aromaticum Plant -- -- *
Origanum syriacum Shoot -- 325.0 -0.1 Fleisher, A. & Fleisher, Z. 1991. Chemical Composition of Origanum syriacum L. Essential Oil. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 121-123.
Eucalyptus tereticornis Shoot -- 585.0 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Origanum syriacum Shoot -- 265.0 -0.1 Fleisher, A. & Fleisher, Z. 1991. Chemical Composition of Origanum syriacum L. Essential Oil. J. Ess. Oil Res. 3: 121-123.
Eucalyptus paniculata Shoot -- 355.0 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Tilia sp. Flower -- -- *
Teucrium divaricatum Leaf -- 365.0 -0.2 Arnold, N., Bellomaria, B., Velentini G. and Rafaiani, S.M. 1991. Comparative Study on Essential Oil of Some Teucrium Species from Cyprus. J. Ethnopharm. 35: 105-113.
Artemisia capillaris Essential Oil -- -- *
Curcuma zedoaria Rhizome -- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Elsholtzia pilosa Shoot -- 7.6 -0.1 *
Hedeoma pulegioides Pollen Or Spore -- 4000.0 *
Coriandrum sativum Essential Oil -- -- *
Ferula assa-foetida Seed Essent. Oil -- 14300.0 -0.6 *
Ferula assa-foetida Gum -- 143000.0 *
Artemisia dracunculus Leaf Essent. Oil -- -- *
Micromeria dalmatica Leaf -- 60.0 -0.2 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Artemisia dracunculus Root Essent. Oil -- -- *
Artemisia dracunculus Essential Oil -- 10000.0 -0.5 *
Croton lechleri Plant -- -- Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Satureja cilicica Shoot -- 150.0 -0.1 Tumen, G. Baser, K.H.C. and Kirimer, N. 1993. The Essential Oil of Satureja cilicica P.H. Davis. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 547-548.
Rosa damascena Essential Oil -- -- *
Aralia cordata Root -- 475.0 -0.6 *
Eucalyptus bosistoana Shoot -- 1220.0 -0.0 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Ruta graveolens Plant -- -- *
Micromeria juliana Leaf -- 65.0 -0.2 Kirimer, N., Ozek, T., and Baser, K.H.C. 1991. Composition of the Essential Oil of Micromeria congesta. J. Ess. Oil Res., 3: 387-393.
Zingiber officinale Rhizome Essent. Oil -- 39000.0 1.4 *
Alpinia galanga Leaf -- 900.0 -0.2 *
Hypericum perforatum Shoot Essent. Oil -- -- *
Tagetes minuta Flower Essent. Oil -- 100.0 -1.0 *
Hypericum perforatum Leaf Essent. Oil -- -- *
Tagetes minuta Leaf Essent. Oil -- -- Zygadlo, J. S., Guzman, C. A., Grosso, N. R. 1994. Antifungal Properties of the Leaf Oils of Tagetes Minuta L. and T. filifolia Lag. J. Essent. Oil Res. 6 6: 617-621. Cat Quim Org Fac Cien Exact Univ Nacion Cordoba Cordoba 5000 Argentina.
Pogostemon cablin Plant -- -- *
Pycnanthemum beadlei Shoot -- 21.0 -0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Teucrium polium Shoot -- 80.0 -0.1 Perez-Alonso, M.J. Velasco-Negueruela, A. and Lopez-Saez, J.A. 1993. The Essential Oils of Two Iberian Teucrium Species. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 397-402.
Hypericum perforatum Fruit Essent. Oil -- -- *
Laurus nobilis Fruit Essent. Oil -- 93000.0 0.4 *
Tagetes minuta Essential Oil -- 10300.0 -0.5 *
Syringa vulgaris Flower -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Citrus aurantium Leaf -- 1.0 -0.2 *
Eucalyptus brassiana Leaf -- 825.0 -0.2 Singh, A. K., Gupta, K. C., & Brophy, J. J. 1991. Chemical Constituents of the Leaf Essential Oil of Eucalyptus brassiana S. T. Blake. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 3: 45-7.
Eucalyptus diversicolor Shoot -- 710.0 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Echinacea spp Fruit -- -- Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 253.
Pycnanthemum torreyi Shoot -- 20.0 -0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Hedeoma hispida Plant -- 18.0 -0.5 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Thymus orospedanus Plant -- 665.0 -0.0 J. Nat. Prod.
Agastache nepetoides Plant -- 20.0 -0.5 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Lantana camara Shoot -- 35.0 -0.1 *
Chrysanthemum balsamita Plant -- -- *
Eucalyptus polyanthemos Shoot -- 135.0 -0.1 Zrira, S. S., Benjilali, B. B., Fechtal, M. M., & Richard, H. H. 1991. Essential Oils of Twenty-seven Eucalyptus Species Grown in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Res. 4: 259-264.
Eucalyptus incrassata Leaf -- 5295.0 0.1 Bignell,C.M.,Dunlop,P.J.,Brophy,J.J.,and Jackson, J.F.1994.Volatile Leaf Oils of Some South-western and Southern Australian Species of the Genus Eucalyptus.Part I.Subgenus Symphyomyrtus,Section Dumaria,Series Incrassatae.Flavour and Fragrance J.9(3):113-7
Citrus sinensis Plant -- -- *
Rosmarinus officinalis Leaf Essent. Oil -- 276000.0 0.8 *
Pycnanthemum californicum Shoot -- 144.0 -0.1 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Coleus barbatus Root Essent. Oil -- 77000.0 -0.4 Jim Duke's personal files.
Rosmarinus officinalis Shoot Essent. Oil -- 4400.0 -0.7 *
Agastache urticifolia Plant -- 32.0 -0.5 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Coleus barbatus Leaf Essent. Oil -- 66800.0 -0.4 Jim Duke's personal files.
Rosmarinus officinalis Resin, Exudate, Sap -- -- *
Humulus lupulus Fruit -- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.