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Total Plants: 609
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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Zingiber officinale Rhizome -- 720.0 1.1 *
Zingiber officinale Rhizome Essent. Oil -- 39000.0 1.4 *
Zea mays Husk Essent. Oil -- -- *
Vitex agnus-castus Fruit 21.0 4000.0 0.3 *
Vitex agnus-castus Flower -- -- *
Vitex agnus-castus Leaf Essent. Oil -- 43200.0 -0.5 Jim Duke's personal files.
Vitex agnus-castus Fruit Essent. Oil -- 6.6 -0.8 Jim Duke's personal files.
Vitex agnus-castus Leaf -- 21.0 -0.2 Ekundayo, O., Laakso, I., Holopainen, M., Hiltunen, R., Oguntimein, B., and Kauppinen, V. 1990. The Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Leaf Oil of Vitex agnus-castus L. J. Essential Oil Research, 2: 115-119.
Vetiveria zizanioides Root -- 15.0 -0.8 *
Valeriana officinalis Rhizome Essent. Oil -- -- *
Valeriana officinalis Leaf 2.0 6095.0 0.2 Father Nature's Farmacy: The aggregate of all these three-letter citations.
Valeriana officinalis Essential Oil -- -- *
Valeriana officinalis Leaf Essent. Oil 1000.0 239100.0 0.6 *
Valeriana officinalis Root 1.0 500.0 -0.5 Father Nature's Farmacy: The aggregate of all these three-letter citations.
Valeriana officinalis Root Essent. Oil -- 25000.0 -1.0 *
Vaccinium corymbosum Fruit -- -- *
Umbellularia californica Plant 360.0 1440.0 0.5 *
Turnera diffusa Leaf 50.0 100.0 -0.2 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Trichostemma dichotomum Shoot -- 35.0 -0.1 Tucker, A.O. and Maciarello, M.J. 1990. The Essential Oil of Trichostemma dichotomum. J. Ess. Oil Res. 2: 149-150.
Trachyspermum ammi Fruit 99.0 720.0 -0.5 *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.