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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Zizyphus jujuba Fruit -- 21.0 -0.3 *
Zingiber officinale Rhizome -- 57.0 -0.2 *
Zingiber officinale Root -- -- *
Zea mays Seed 4.0 20.0 -0.7 *
Yucca baccata Root 0.3 1.4 -1.0 *
Xanthosoma sagittifolium Root 5.0 19.0 -0.2 *
Vitis vinifera Fruit 0.4 27.0 -0.1 *
Vitis vinifera Stem -- 75.0 -0.6 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Viscum album Leaf -- 86.0 0.0 *
Vigna radiata Sprout Seedling 3.5 48.0 0.5 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna aconitifolia Seed 19.0 21.0 -0.7 *
Vigna unguiculata Seed 10.0 144.0 2.8 *
Vigna radiata Seed 26.0 31.0 -0.4 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna unguiculata Seed 35.0 38.0 -0.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna angularis Seed 50.0 58.0 0.4 *
Viburnum opulus Bark -- 17.0 0.4 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Verbascum thapsus Leaf 0.2 0.4 -0.5 *
Valerianella locusta Plant 62.0 64.5 0.1 *
Valerianella radicata Plant 572.0 701.0 6.4 *
Valeriana officinalis Root -- -- *
Vaccinium myrtillus Fruit 1.0 8.7 -0.6 *
Vaccinium macrocarpon Fruit -- -- *
Vaccinium vitis-idaea Fruit 1.7 14.0 -0.5 *
Vaccinium corymbosum Fruit 1.0 7.0 -0.7 *
Urtica dioica Leaf 0.9 4.7 -0.5 *
Urtica dioica Seed -- 19.0 -0.7 *
Urtica dioica Root -- 19.0 -0.2 *
Ulmus rubra Bark -- -- *
Tussilago farfara Flower -- 25.0 -0.4 *
Turnera diffusa Leaf 0.8 3.7 -0.5 *
Triticum aestivum Seed 12.0 19.0 -0.7 *
Trigonella foenum-graecum Seed -- -- *
Trifolium pratense Flower -- -- *
Tragopogon porrifolius Root -- 2.0 -1.0 *
Trachyspermum ammi Fruit -- 43.0 0.4 *
Thymus vulgaris Plant 55.0 74.0 0.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Thymus vulgaris Leaf 0.3 1.5 -0.5 *
Tetrapanax papyrifera Pith -- 42.0 1.0 *
Tephrosia candida Plant -- 26.0 -0.3 *
Taraxacum officinale Leaf 21.0 230.0 0.9 *
Taraxacum officinale Root 0.2 1.3 -1.0 *
Taraxacum mongolicum Plant -- 34.0 -0.2 *
Tanacetum parthenium Plant -- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Tabebuia heptaphylla Bark 0.1 0.7 -1.2 *
Syzygium aromaticum Fruit 10.0 30.0 -0.0 *
Syzygium aromaticum Flower 10.0 30.0 -0.2 *
Symphytum officinale Leaf -- -- *
Symphytum officinale Root -- 2.8 -0.9 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Symphoricarpos orbiculatus Stem 2.0 92.0 -0.4 *
Stevia rebaudiana Plant -- 26.0 -0.3 Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Stevia rebaudiana Leaf -- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Stellaria media Plant 0.4 5.2 -0.5 *
Stachys officinalis Plant 0.1 0.8 -0.5 *
Spondias tuberosa Fruit -- 1.33 -0.9 *
Spondias dulcis Fruit -- 1.9 -0.9 *
Spirulina spp. Plant -- 5.3 -0.5 *
Spinacia oleracea Plant 4.0 185.0 1.3 *
Sorbus aucubaria Fruit 1.0 18.0 -0.4 *
Sophora subprostrata Root -- 14.0 -0.4 *
Sophora angustifolia Root 10.0 24.0 -0.0 *
Solanum tuberosum Tuber 1.9 44.1 0.8 *
Solanum melongena Fruit 18.0 25.6 -0.1 *
Smilax officinalis Root 0.5 2.6 -0.9 *
Smilax spp Root 0.5 2.6 -0.9 *
Sinomenium acutum Rhizome -- 15.0 -0.4 *
Sinapis alba Seed 27.0 61.0 0.5 *
Simmondsia chinensis Seed -- 16.0 -0.8 *
Silybum marianum Plant -- 3.3 -0.5 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Silybum marianum Leaf 0.7 3.3 -0.5 *
Siegesbeckia orientalis Plant -- 17.0 -0.3 *
Sesamum indicum Seed 24.0 102.0 1.6 *
Serenoa repens Fruit 0.7 5.2 -0.8 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Senna occidentalis Seed -- 41.0 -0.1 *
Senna alexandrina Leaf 0.4 1.9 -0.5 *
Senna obtusifolia Seed 10.0 76.0 0.9 *
Sechium edule Leaf 0.5 73.0 -0.1 *
Secale cereale Seed 35.0 45.0 -0.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Scutellaria lateriflora Plant 1.2 8.6 -0.4 *
Scutellaria baicalensis Root 17.0 18.0 -0.3 *
Scrophularia buergeriana Root -- 13.0 -0.5 *
Schizonepeta tenuifolia Plant -- 28.0 -0.2 *
Schisandra chinensis Fruit -- -- *
Sassafras albidum Stem 4.0 111.0 -0.1 *
Sassafras albidum Leaf 10.0 136.0 0.3 *
Santalum acuminatum Fruit 2.0 9.0 -0.6 *
Sambucus nigra Fruit 3.0 17.0 -0.4 *
Salvia officinalis Leaf 1.0 5.9 -0.5 *
Salvia miltiorrhiza Root -- 12.0 -0.5 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Salix alba Bark 0.4 2.1 -1.0 *
Ruscus aculeatus Root 0.6 2.1 -1.0 *
Ruscus aculeatus Bark -- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Rumex acetosa Leaf 2.0 20.0 -0.4 *
Rumex crispus Root -- -- *
Rubus chamaemorus Fruit 5.3 40.0 0.3 *
Rubus idaeus Leaf -- -- *
Rubus idaeus Fruit 4.0 37.0 0.2 Revised USDA data received 1993.
Rubus chingii Fruit -- 28.0 -0.1 *
Rubia cordifolia Root -- 39.0 0.6 *
Rosmarinus officinalis Leaf 9.0 38.0 -0.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Rosmarinus officinalis Plant 30.0 38.0 -0.1 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Rosa laevigata Fruit -- 15.0 -0.5 *
Rosa canina Fruit -- -- *
Ribes rubrum Fruit 2.0 16.0 -0.4 *
Ribes nigrum Fruit 2.0 21.0 -0.3 *
Ribes uva-crispa Fruit 1.0 16.0 -0.4 *
Rhus copallina Stem 7.0 128.0 0.2 *
Rhus copallina Leaf 5.0 96.0 0.1 *
Rhus glabra Stem 3.0 208.0 1.4 *
Rhodymenia palmata Plant -- 39.0 -0.1 *
Rhizophora mangle Leaf -- 43.0 -0.3 *
Rheum rhabarbarum Pt 1.0 46.0 *
Rheum palmatum Rhizome 9.0 10.0 -0.4 *
Rehmannia glutinosa Root -- 14.0 -0.4 *
Raphanus sativus Root 2.0 72.0 2.1 *
Raphanus sativus Seed -- 29.0 -0.5 *
Quisqualis indica Fruit -- 22.0 -0.2 *
Quercus phellos Stem 2.0 92.0 -0.4 *
Quercus stellata Stem 4.0 52.0 -1.0 *
Quercus alba Stem 2.0 182.0 1.0 *
Quercus rubra Stem 4.0 138.0 0.3 *
Quercus rubra Seed -- 17.0 -0.8 *
Quercus velutina Stem 5.0 93.0 -0.3 *
Quercus alba Bark 0.6 2.4 -1.0 *
Pyrus communis Fruit 0.15 26.6 -0.1 *
Pulsatilla chinensis Root -- 24.0 -0.0 *
Pueraria pseudohirsuta Root 21.0 30.0 0.3 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobus Seed 43.0 51.0 0.2 *
Psidium guajava Fruit 2.0 20.0 -0.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus serotina Stem 0.5 216.0 1.5 *
Prunus persica Fruit 0.45 37.5 0.2 *
Prunus domestica Fruit 0.66 131.0 3.0 *
Prunus serotina Leaf 3.0 192.0 0.7 *
Prunus persica Bark -- -- *
Prunus cerasus Fruit 1.0 7.0 -0.7 *
Prunus persica Seed -- 31.0 -0.4 *
Prunus dulcis Seed 26.0 37.0 -0.2 *
Prunus armeniaca Seed 2.0 38.0 -0.2 *
Prunella vulgaris Flower -- 25.0 -0.4 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Portulaca oleracea Shoot 3.0 60.0 -0.7 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Polystichum polyblepharum Plant 34.0 60.0 0.1 *
Polygonum multiflorum Root -- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Polygonum multiflorum Plant -- 24.5 -0.3 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Polygonum multiflorum Rhizome -- 8.0 -0.4 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Polygala tenuifolia Root -- 12.0 -0.5 *
Platycodon grandiflorum Root 13.0 18.0 -0.3 *
Plantago asiatica Plant -- 31.0 -0.2 *
Plantago major Seed 0.8 2.5 -1.2 *
Plantago psyllium Seed 0.5 2.1 -1.2 *
Pisum sativum Seed 11.0 60.0 0.4 *
Pistacia vera Seed 3.0 30.0 -0.4 *
Piper nigrum Fruit 11.2 35.7 0.2 *
Pinus echinata Shoot 6.0 88.0 -0.6 *
Pinus pinea Seed 42.0 46.0 0.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Pinus edulis Seed 40.0 50.0 0.1 *
Pinellia ternata Tuber 14.0 18.0 -0.6 *
Pimpinella anisum Fruit -- 59.0 0.9 *
Pimpinella anisum Seed -- 59.0 0.4 *
Pimenta dioica Fruit 11.0 20.0 -0.3 *
Phytelephas aequatorialis Flower 7.0 24.0 -0.5 KOZIOL & PEDERSEN. 1993. PHYTELEPHAS AEQUATORIALIS(ARECACEAE) IN HUMAN AND ANIMAL NUTRITION. ECON. BOT. 47:401-307.
Phytelephas aequatorialis Mesocarp 13.0 37.0 KOZIOL & PEDERSEN. 1993. PHYTELEPHAS AEQUATORIALIS(ARECACEAE) IN HUMAN AND ANIMAL NUTRITION. ECON. BOT. 47:401-307.
Physalis ixocarpa Fruit 35.0 71.0 1.2 *
Phyllanthus emblica Fruit 18.0 89.0 1.8 *
Phoenix dactylifera Seed 0.6 29.0 -0.5 Abstract (See species file)
Phoenix dactylifera Fruit 3.0 4.0 -0.8 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phellodendron amurense Bark -- 26.0 1.3 *
Phaseolus lunatus Seed 7.0 100.0 1.6 *
Phaseolus vulgaris Seed 19.0 50.0 0.1 *
Phaseolus coccineus Seed -- 2.0 -1.2 *
Phaseolus acutifolius Seed 25.0 34.0 -0.3 *
Phaseolus vulgaris Fruit 2.0 150.0 3.6 *
Peucedanum decursivum Plant 23.0 42.0 -0.1 *
Petroselinum crispum Plant -- -- *
Petasites japonicus Plant 21.0 60.0 0.1 Chem. & Pharm. Bull. 38: 2205.
Persea americana Fruit 4.0 16.0 -0.4 *
Perilla frutescens Plant -- 50.0 -0.0 Suziki, A., Morimoto, I., and Okitzu, T., Elution of Metals from Crude Drugs, Shoykugaku Zasshi 36(3):190-195.
Pastinaca sativa Root 5.0 70.0 2.0 *
Passiflora incarnata Flower -- -- *
Parthenium integrifolium Root 0.6 3.7 -0.9 *
Papaver somniferum Seed 24.0 130.0 2.4 *
Panax ginseng Root -- -- *
Panax ginseng Stem -- -- *
Panax ginseng Leaf -- -- *
Panax quinquefolius Plant 10.0 114.0 0.6 *
Panax ginseng Petiole -- -- *
Panax japonicus Rhizome -- 20.0 -0.4 *
Panax ginseng Fruit -- -- *
Paeonia lactiflora Root 15.0 24.0 -0.0 *
Paeonia suffruticosa Root Bark 10.0 15.0 -0.8 *
Paeonia moutan Root Bark 10.0 15.0 -0.8 *
Origanum majorana Plant 32.0 43.0 -0.1 *
Origanum vulgare Plant 39.0 49.0 -0.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Opuntia ficus-indica Seed -- 15.0 -0.9 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Ophiopogon japonicus Tuber 7.0 16.0 -0.7 *
Oenothera biennis Seed 70.0 90.0 1.3 *
Ocimum basilicum Leaf 5.0 6.0 -0.5 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Nyssa sylvatica Stem 6.0 132.0 0.2 *
Nyssa sylvatica Leaf 2.0 55.0 -0.2 *
Notopterygium incisum Rhizome -- 16.0 -0.4 *
Nepeta cataria Plant -- -- *
Nelumbo nucifera Seed -- 28.0 -0.5 *
Nasturtium officinale Plant -- -- *
Nardostachys chinensis Rhizome -- 22.0 -0.4 *
Myristica fragrans Seed 13.0 20.0 -0.7 *
Myristica fragrans Aril -- 20.0 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Myrica cerifera Bark -- -- *
Musa x paradisiaca Fruit 1.0 6.5 -0.7 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Murraya sp Fruit 1.0 7.0 -0.7 *
Morus alba Root Bark 9.0 14.0 -1.1 *
Morinda sp Root -- 15.0 -0.4 *
Mentha pulegium Plant -- 56.0 0.0 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Mentha spicata Leaf 11.0 75.0 -0.1 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Mentha arvensis var. piperascens Plant -- 28.0 -0.2 Suziki, A., Morimoto, I., and Okitzu, T., Elution of Metals from Crude Drugs, Shoykugaku Zasshi 36(3):190-195.
Mentha x piperita Leaf -- -- *
Medicago sativa Plant -- -- *
Manihot esculenta Root 4.0 19.0 -0.2 *
Mangifera indica Fruit 0.4 11.4 -0.6 *
Malus domestica Fruit -- 35.0 0.1 *
Magnolia officinalis Bark -- 9.0 -0.4 *
Magnolia denudata Flower -- 25.0 -0.4 *
Magnolia kobus Flower -- 25.0 -0.4 *
Magnolia fargesii Flower -- 25.0 -0.4 *
Macadamia spp Seed 17.0 18.0 -0.8 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lygodium japonicum Pollen Or Spore -- 23.0 *
Lycopodium clavatum Plant -- 28.0 -0.2 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Lycopersicon esculentum Fruit 1.0 120.0 2.7 *
Lycium chinense Fruit -- 20.0 -0.3 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Lycium chinense Root Bark -- 23.0 1.6 *
Lupinus albus Seed 47.0 53.0 0.2 *
Lophatherum gracile Plant -- 25.0 -0.3 *
Lonicera japonica Flower -- 21.0 -0.6 *
Lobelia inflata Leaf 0.1 0.4 -0.5 *
Liquidambar styraciflua Leaf 12.0 98.0 0.1 *
Liquidambar styraciflua Stem 4.0 240.0 1.8 *
Linum usitatissimum Seed 85.0 155.0 3.1 Cunane, S. and Thompson, L. U., eds. 1995. Flaxseed in Human Nutrition. AOCS Press, Champaign IL. 384 pp.
Ligustrum lucidum Fruit -- 24.0 -0.2 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Ligustrum japonicum Fruit -- 24.0 -0.2 *
Lepidium meyenii Root -- 38.0 0.6 Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Lens culinaris Seed 37.0 42.0 -0.1 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lens culinaris Sprout Seedling 14.0 54.0 0.9 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Larrea tridentata Plant -- -- *
Lagenaria siceraria Fruit 7.0 157.0 3.8 *
Lactuca sativa Leaf 2.7 974.0 5.5 *
Lablab purpureus Seed 75.0 93.0 1.4 *
Jussiaea repens Plant -- 40.0 -0.1 *
Juniperus virginiana Shoot 7.0 317.0 0.1 *
Juniperus communis Fruit -- -- *
Juncus effusus Pith -- 38.0 -1.0 *
Juglans nigra Seed -- 46.0 0.0 *
Juglans regia Seed 25.0 30.0 -0.4 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Juglans nigra Fruit -- -- *
Juglans nigra Hull Husk -- -- *
Juglans nigra Pericarp -- -- *
Juglans cinerea Seed 26.0 37.0 -0.2 *
Isatis tinctoria Root -- 40.0 0.7 *
Ipomoea batatas Root 2.0 11.0 -0.6 *
Ipomoea aquatica Leaf 12.3 92.0 0.0 *
Inula helenium Plant -- -- *
Inula helenium Root 1.0 3.9 -0.9 *
Hyoscyamus niger Seed -- 48.0 0.1 *
Hydrastis canadensis Root 0.4 1.6 -1.0 *
Hydrangea arborescens Root -- -- *
Humulus lupulus Fruit -- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Humulus lupulus Flower -- -- *
Houttuynia cordata Plant -- 56.0 0.0 Suziki, A., Morimoto, I., and Okitzu, T., Elution of Metals from Crude Drugs, Shoykugaku Zasshi 36(3):190-195.
Hordeum vulgare Sprout Seedling -- 20.0 -1.4 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Hordeum vulgare Seed 20.0 30.0 -0.4 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Hordeum vulgare Stem -- 21.0 -1.4 *
Hibiscus sabdariffa Flower -- -- *
Helianthus tuberosus Tuber 16.0 64.0 1.9 Bonness, M. S., Promising new drugs from plants: poisons that heal, Herbarist, #56, 1990, 59-68
Helianthus annuus Seed 46.0 54.0 0.3 *
Harpagophytum procumbens Root 0.3 1.8 -1.0 *
Gymnema sylvestre Leaf -- -- *
Glycyrrhiza uralensis Root 11.0 13.0 -0.5 *
Glycyrrhiza glabra Root 0.1 0.3 -1.0 *
Glycine max Seed 22.0 90.0 1.3 *
Glehnia littoralis Root -- 26.0 0.1 *
Glechoma hederacea Plant 46.0 53.0 0.0 Chem. & Pharm. Bull. 38: 2205.
Ginkgo biloba Seed 3.0 8.0 -1.1 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Ginkgo biloba Leaf 0.6 2.3 -0.5 *
Geranium thunbergii Plant -- 28.0 -0.2 *
Gentiana scabra Root -- 18.0 -0.3 *
Gentiana lutea Root 0.6 2.9 -0.9 *
Genipa americana Seed -- 16.0 -0.8 *
Genipa americana Fruit 3.0 14.0 -0.5 *
Gastrodia elata Rhizome -- 12.0 -0.4 *
Gardenia jasminoides Fruit 10.0 17.0 -0.4 *
Fucus vesiculosus Plant 0.1 0.6 -0.5 *
Fritillaria thunbergii Bulb -- 12.0 -0.8 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Fraxinus rhynchophylla Bark -- 17.0 0.4 *
Frangula purshiana Bark -- -- *
Fragaria spp Fruit 1.1 17.0 -0.4 *
Forsythia suspensa Fruit -- 17.0 -0.4 *
Foeniculum vulgare Fruit 7.1 33.0 0.1 *
Foeniculum vulgare Seed 0.1 0.7 -1.3 *
Firmiana simplex Seed -- 25.0 -0.6 *
Ficus carica Fruit 1.0 7.0 -0.7 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Fallopia japonica Plant 42.0 49.0 -0.0 Chem. & Pharm. Bull. 38: 2205.
Euphrasia officinalis Plant 0.5 3.5 -0.5 *
Eupatorium perfoliatum Plant 0.2 2.0 -0.5 *
Euodia rutaecarpa Fruit -- 18.0 -0.4 *
Eucommia ulmoides Bark -- 14.0 0.1 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Erythroxylum coca Leaf 18.0 29.0 -0.3 *
Erythroxylum novogranatense Leaf 19.0 22.0 -0.4 *
Erythroxylum novogranatense Leaf 16.0 33.0 -0.3 *
Eriodictyon californicum Leaf 0.4 1.7 -0.5 *
Eriocaulon sp Leaf -- 21.0 -0.4 *
Eriobotrya japonica Leaf -- 28.0 -0.4 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Equisetum hyemale Plant -- 10.0 -0.4 *
Equisetum arvense Plant -- -- *
Ephedra sinica Plant 0.4 2.1 -0.5 *
Ephedra spp Plant -- 8.0 -0.4 *
Elytrigia repens Plant -- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Eleutherococcus senticosus Root 0.9 4.2 -0.9 *
Elettaria cardamomum Fruit 23.0 28.0 -0.1 *
Elaeagnus umbellatus Fruit 3.0 20.0 -0.3 *
Echinacea spp Root -- 5.1 -0.8 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Echinacea purpurea Root 1.3 5.1 -0.8 *
Drynaria fortunei Rhizome -- 17.0 -0.4 *
Diospyros virginiana Leaf 5.0 25.0 -0.4 *
Diospyros virginiana Stem 9.0 162.0 0.7 *
Dioscorea alata Root 2.0 17.0 -0.3 *
Dioscorea sp. Root -- 56.0 1.4 *
Dioscorea villosa Root 1.3 5.6 -0.8 *
Dioscorea bulbifera Rhizome -- 12.0 -0.4 *
Dendrobium nobile Stem -- 26.0 -1.3 *
Daucus carota Root 2.0 79.0 2.4 *
Cyrtosperma chamissonis Root 10.0 50.0 1.1 *
Cypripedium pubescens Root -- 67.0 1.9 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Cyperus rotundus Rhizome -- 33.0 -0.3 *
Cynara cardunculus Flower 4.0 36.0 0.1 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cynanchum atratum Root -- 31.0 0.3 *
Cymbopogon citratus Plant -- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Curcuma longa Plant 0.5 1.5 -0.5 *
Curcuma longa Rhizome -- 22.0 -0.4 *
Cuminum cyminum Seed 41.0 58.0 0.4 *
Cuminum cyminum Fruit 41.0 58.0 0.8 *
Cucurbita pepo Seed 75.0 200.0 4.4 *
Cucurbita maxima Leaf 7.6 54.0 -0.2 *
Cucurbita spp Fruit 2.0 41.0 0.3 *
Cucumis melo Fruit 1.5 31.0 0.0 *
Cucumis sativus Fruit 2.0 157.0 3.8 *
Crataegus laevigata Flower -- -- *
Crataegus laevigata Fruit -- -- *
Crataegus rhipidophylla Fruit -- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Crataegus cuneata Fruit -- 14.0 -0.5 *
Corylus avellana Seed 20.0 39.0 -0.2 *
Cornus officinalis Fruit -- 12.0 -0.6 *
Coriandrum sativum Fruit 34.0 52.0 0.7 *
Coptis chinensis Rhizome 90.0 600.0 2.7 *
Coptis spp Rhizome 90.0 600.0 2.7 *
Coptis japonica Rhizome 90.0 600.0 2.7 *
Colocasia esculenta Root 5.0 66.0 1.8 *
Colocasia esculenta Leaf -- 6.6 -0.5 *
Coix lacryma-jobi Seed -- 20.0 -0.7 Suziki, A., Morimoto, I., and Okitzu, T., Elution of Metals from Crude Drugs, Shoykugaku Zasshi 36(3):190-195.
Cocos nucifera Seed 9.0 25.0 -0.6 *
Cnidium officinale Rhizome -- 16.0 -0.4 *
Cnicus benedictus Plant -- -- *
Citrus reticulata Fruit 0.8 8.0 -0.7 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Citrus paradisi Fruit -- 22.0 -0.2 *
Citrus medica Fruit -- 14.0 -0.5 *
Citrus sinensis Fruit 0.9 13.0 -0.5 *
Citrus aurantiifolia Fruit 1.0 9.0 -0.6 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Citrus aurantium Fruit -- 16.0 -0.4 *
Citrullus lanatus Fruit -- 8.0 -0.7 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Cistanche salsa Plant -- 13.0 -0.4 *
Cinnamomum verum Bark 11.4 20.0 0.7 *
Cinnamomum burmannii Bark -- 10.0 -0.3 *
Cinnamomum sieboldii Root Bark -- 20.0 0.7 *
Cinnamomum aromaticum Bark 4.0 10.0 -0.3 *
Cinnamomum verum Leaf -- 34.0 -0.3 *
Cinnamomum sieboldii Bark -- 40.0 2.6 *
Cimicifuga dahurica Rhizome -- 18.0 -0.4 *
Cimicifuga racemosa Root -- -- *
Cichorium endivia Leaf 8.0 146.0 0.4 *
Cichorium intybus Root -- -- *
Cicer arietinum Seed 33.0 50.0 0.1 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Chrysanthemum parthenium Plant -- -- *
Chrysanthemum parthenium Leaf -- -- *
Chondrus crispus Plant -- 44.0 -0.1 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Chenopodium album Seed -- 24.0 -0.6 *
Chamissoa altissima Leaf 4.0 36.0 -0.3 Tramil
Chamaemelum nobile Flower -- -- *
Chaenomeles lagenaria Fruit -- 21.0 -0.3 *
Centella asiatica Leaf 0.4 3.4 -0.5 *
Centella asiatica Bark -- 3.4 -0.9 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Celosia cristata Flower -- 39.0 0.3 *
Caulophyllum thalictroides Root -- -- *
Catalpa ovata Fruit -- 21.0 -0.3 *
Castanea sativa Seed 4.0 10.0 -1.0 *
Castanea mollisima Seed 8.0 17.0 -0.8 *
Castanea dentata Seed 10.0 24.0 -0.6 *
Cassia tora Seed -- 31.0 -0.4 *
Carya illinoensis Seed -- 56.0 0.3 *
Carya glabra Shoot 4.0 1100.0 2.3 *
Carya ovata Shoot 7.0 342.0 0.1 *
Carya ovata Seed -- 46.0 0.0 *
Carum carvi Seed 47.0 66.0 0.6 *
Carum carvi Fruit 47.0 61.0 0.9 *
Carthamus tinctorius Flower -- -- *
Carica papaya Fruit -- -- *
Capsicum annuum Fruit 2.0 7.7 -0.7 *
Capsicum frutescens Fruit 3.0 24.0 -0.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Canavalia ensiformis Seed -- 20.0 -0.7 *
Camellia sinensis Leaf -- 30.0 -0.3 *
Cajanus cajan Seed 25.0 34.0 -0.3 *
Bupleurum chinense Root -- -- *
Broussonetia papyrifera Fruit -- 23.0 -0.2 *
Brassica pekinensis Leaf 66.5 80.0 -0.0 *
Brassica nigra Leaf 2.0 40.0 -0.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica oleracea var. capitata l. Leaf 2.0 41.0 -0.3 *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l. Flower 3.0 97.0 3.1 *
Brassica rapa Root 2.0 23.0 -0.1 *
Brassica oleracea var. sabellica l. Leaf 4.0 28.0 -0.4 *
Brassica napus var. napobrassica Root 1.7 33.0 0.4 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera Leaf 10.0 157.0 0.4 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica oleracea var. italica Leaf 4.0 118.0 0.2 *
Brassica rapa Seed -- 15.0 -0.9 *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l. Leaf 4.0 118.0 0.2 *
Brassica oleracea var. viridis l. Leaf 10.0 157.0 0.4 *
Brassica juncea Leaf 6.0 65.0 -0.1 *
Borago officinalis Plant -- -- Abstract (See species file)
Boehmeria nivea Plant 32.0 43.0 -0.1 *
Bletilla striata Tuber -- 16.0 -0.7 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Blechnum orientale Rhizome -- 17.0 -0.4 *
Beta vulgaris Root 3.0 70.0 2.0 *
Bertholletia excelsa Seed 41.0 53.0 0.2 *
Berberis vulgaris Root -- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Berberis vulgaris Bark -- -- *
Belamcanda chinensis Rhizome -- 17.0 -0.4 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Barosma betulina Leaf -- 84.0 -0.0 *
Averrhoa carambola Fruit 1.0 12.0 -0.6 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Avena sativa Plant -- -- *
Atractylodes ovata Rhizome 26.0 32.0 -0.3 *
Atractylodes lancea Rhizome -- 33.0 -0.3 *
Astragalus membranaceus Root 0.8 5.0 -0.8 *
Asparagus officinalis Root 0.2 2.3 -1.0 *
Asparagus officinalis Shoot 12.0 124.0 -0.5 *
Asparagus lucidus Root 7.0 8.0 -0.7 *
Asimina triloba Fruit 9.0 38.0 0.2 *
Asiasarum sieboldii Root 38.0 59.0 1.5 *
Asiasarum heterotropoides Root 38.0 59.0 1.5 *
Artocarpus heterophyllus Fruit 4.0 16.0 -0.4 *
Artocarpus altilis Fruit 1.2 8.0 -0.7 *
Artemisia herba-alba Plant 10.0 21.0 -0.3 *
Artemisia capillaris Plant -- 22.0 -0.3 *
Artemisia dracunculus Plant -- -- *
Artemisia vulgaris Plant 50.0 90.0 0.4 Chem. & Pharm. Bull. 38: 2205.
Artemisia cina Plant -- -- *
Armoracia rusticana Root 0.5 2.9 -0.9 *
Aristolochia debilis Fruit -- 40.0 0.3 *
Arisaema consanguineum Rhizome -- 14.0 -0.4 *
Areca catechu Seed -- 16.0 -0.8 *
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Leaf -- -- *
Arctium lappa Root 0.5 2.2 -1.0 *
Arachis hypogaea Seed 31.0 35.0 -0.3 *
Apium graveolens Root 2.8 70.0 2.0 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Apium graveolens Fruit 0.3 1.2 -0.9 *
Apium graveolens Leaf 1.0 44.0 -0.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Apium graveolens Seed 0.2 89.0 1.2 *
Anthriscus cerefolium Leaf 9.0 10.0 -0.5 *
Annona muricata Fruit -- 4.0 -0.8 *
Annona cherimola Fruit 3.0 15.0 -0.5 *
Angelica sinensis Root -- -- *
Angelica laxiflora Root -- 15.0 -0.4 *
Angelica dahurica Root -- 29.0 0.2 *
Anethum graveolens Plant 11.0 150.0 1.0 *
Anethum graveolens Seed 43.0 66.0 0.6 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Anethum graveolens Fruit 43.0 66.0 1.1 *
Anemarrhena asphodeloides Rhizome 19.0 27.0 -0.3 *
Ananas comosus Fruit 0.7 6.0 -0.7 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Anacardium occidentale Seed 48.0 57.0 0.3 *
Amphicarpaea bracteata Shoot -- 40.0 -0.7 *
Amorphophallus campanulatus Root 10.0 50.0 1.1 *
Amorphophallus konjac Root -- -- *
Amomum xanthioides Seed -- 48.0 0.1 *
Amaranthus sp. Leaf 9.0 108.0 0.1 *
Althaea officinalis Root -- -- *
Aloe vera Leaf 11.0 770.0 4.2 *
Aloe spp. Leaf -- 1.1 -0.5 *
Alocasia macrorrhiza Root 15.0 51.0 1.2 *
Allium sativum var. sativum Bulb -- 15.3 -0.6 *
Allium sativum var. sativum Root -- -- *
Allium ampeloprasum Plant -- -- *
Allium cepa Seed -- 34.0 -0.3 *
Allium cepa Bulb 2.0 53.0 1.4 *
Alisma plantago-aquatica Rhizome 54.0 68.0 -0.1 *
Albizia julibrissin Bark 7.0 8.0 -0.5 *
Akebia quinata Stem -- 10.0 -1.6 *
Agathosma betulina Leaf -- 84.0 -0.0 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Actaea dahurica Rhizome -- 18.0 -0.4 Suziki, A., Morimoto, I., and Okitzu, T., Elution of Metals from Crude Drugs, Shoykugaku Zasshi 36(3):190-195.
Actaea racemosa Root -- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Acorus calamus Rhizome -- -- Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Aconitum carmichaelii Tuber -- 13.0 -0.8 *
Achyranthes bidentata Root 16.0 51.0 1.2 *
Achillea millefolium Plant -- -- *
Acanthopanax gracilistylis Root Bark -- 19.0 0.4 *
Abelmoschus manihot Leaf 12.5 108.0 0.1 *
Abelmoschus esculentus Fruit 6.0 60.0 0.9 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.