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Total Plants: 498
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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Valerianella radicata Plant 572.0 701.0 6.4 *
Lactuca sativa Leaf 2.7 974.0 5.5 *
Cucurbita pepo Seed 75.0 200.0 4.4 *
Aloe vera Leaf 11.0 770.0 4.2 *
Lagenaria siceraria Fruit 7.0 157.0 3.8 *
Cucumis sativus Fruit 2.0 157.0 3.8 *
Phaseolus vulgaris Fruit 2.0 150.0 3.6 *
Linum usitatissimum Seed 85.0 155.0 3.1 Cunane, S. and Thompson, L. U., eds. 1995. Flaxseed in Human Nutrition. AOCS Press, Champaign IL. 384 pp.
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l. Flower 3.0 97.0 3.1 *
Prunus domestica Fruit 0.66 131.0 3.0 *
Vigna unguiculata Seed 10.0 144.0 2.8 *
Coptis chinensis Rhizome 90.0 600.0 2.7 *
Coptis japonica Rhizome 90.0 600.0 2.7 *
Coptis spp Rhizome 90.0 600.0 2.7 *
Lycopersicon esculentum Fruit 1.0 120.0 2.7 *
Cinnamomum sieboldii Bark -- 40.0 2.6 *
Papaver somniferum Seed 24.0 130.0 2.4 *
Daucus carota Root 2.0 79.0 2.4 *
Carya glabra Shoot 4.0 1100.0 2.3 *
Raphanus sativus Root 2.0 72.0 2.1 *
Pastinaca sativa Root 5.0 70.0 2.0 *
Apium graveolens Root 2.8 70.0 2.0 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Beta vulgaris Root 3.0 70.0 2.0 *
Cypripedium pubescens Root -- 67.0 1.9 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Helianthus tuberosus Tuber 16.0 64.0 1.9 Bonness, M. S., Promising new drugs from plants: poisons that heal, Herbarist, #56, 1990, 59-68
Liquidambar styraciflua Stem 4.0 240.0 1.8 *
Colocasia esculenta Root 5.0 66.0 1.8 *
Phyllanthus emblica Fruit 18.0 89.0 1.8 *
Lycium chinense Root Bark -- 23.0 1.6 *
Sesamum indicum Seed 24.0 102.0 1.6 *
Phaseolus lunatus Seed 7.0 100.0 1.6 *
Asiasarum heterotropoides Root 38.0 59.0 1.5 *
Asiasarum sieboldii Root 38.0 59.0 1.5 *
Prunus serotina Stem 0.5 216.0 1.5 *
Allium cepa Bulb 2.0 53.0 1.4 *
Dioscorea sp. Root -- 56.0 1.4 *
Rhus glabra Stem 3.0 208.0 1.4 *
Lablab purpureus Seed 75.0 93.0 1.4 *
Spinacia oleracea Plant 4.0 185.0 1.3 *
Glycine max Seed 22.0 90.0 1.3 *
Oenothera biennis Seed 70.0 90.0 1.3 *
Phellodendron amurense Bark -- 26.0 1.3 *
Apium graveolens Seed 0.2 89.0 1.2 *
Physalis ixocarpa Fruit 35.0 71.0 1.2 *
Achyranthes bidentata Root 16.0 51.0 1.2 *
Alocasia macrorrhiza Root 15.0 51.0 1.2 *
Cyrtosperma chamissonis Root 10.0 50.0 1.1 *
Amorphophallus campanulatus Root 10.0 50.0 1.1 *
Anethum graveolens Fruit 43.0 66.0 1.1 *
Tetrapanax papyrifera Pith -- 42.0 1.0 *
Quercus alba Stem 2.0 182.0 1.0 *
Anethum graveolens Plant 11.0 150.0 1.0 *
Carum carvi Fruit 47.0 61.0 0.9 *
Lens culinaris Sprout Seedling 14.0 54.0 0.9 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Abelmoschus esculentus Fruit 6.0 60.0 0.9 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Taraxacum officinale Leaf 21.0 230.0 0.9 *
Senna obtusifolia Seed 10.0 76.0 0.9 *
Pimpinella anisum Fruit -- 59.0 0.9 *
Cuminum cyminum Fruit 41.0 58.0 0.8 *
Solanum tuberosum Tuber 1.9 44.1 0.8 *
Cinnamomum sieboldii Root Bark -- 20.0 0.7 *
Isatis tinctoria Root -- 40.0 0.7 *
Cinnamomum verum Bark 11.4 20.0 0.7 *
Diospyros virginiana Stem 9.0 162.0 0.7 *
Coriandrum sativum Fruit 34.0 52.0 0.7 *
Prunus serotina Leaf 3.0 192.0 0.7 *
Rubia cordifolia Root -- 39.0 0.6 *
Panax quinquefolius Plant 10.0 114.0 0.6 *
Lepidium meyenii Root -- 38.0 0.6 Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Carum carvi Seed 47.0 66.0 0.6 *
Anethum graveolens Seed 43.0 66.0 0.6 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna radiata Sprout Seedling 3.5 48.0 0.5 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Sinapis alba Seed 27.0 61.0 0.5 *
Brassica oleracea var. viridis l. Leaf 10.0 157.0 0.4 *
Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera Leaf 10.0 157.0 0.4 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Pisum sativum Seed 11.0 60.0 0.4 *
Acanthopanax gracilistylis Root Bark -- 19.0 0.4 *
Viburnum opulus Bark -- 17.0 0.4 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Fraxinus rhynchophylla Bark -- 17.0 0.4 *
Pimpinella anisum Seed -- 59.0 0.4 *
Brassica napus var. napobrassica Root 1.7 33.0 0.4 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Trachyspermum ammi Fruit -- 43.0 0.4 *
Artemisia vulgaris Plant 50.0 90.0 0.4 Chem. & Pharm. Bull. 38: 2205.
Cichorium endivia Leaf 8.0 146.0 0.4 *
Vigna angularis Seed 50.0 58.0 0.4 *
Cuminum cyminum Seed 41.0 58.0 0.4 *
Anacardium occidentale Seed 48.0 57.0 0.3 *
Cucurbita spp Fruit 2.0 41.0 0.3 *
Quercus rubra Stem 4.0 138.0 0.3 *
Carya illinoensis Seed -- 56.0 0.3 *
Sassafras albidum Leaf 10.0 136.0 0.3 *
Cynanchum atratum Root -- 31.0 0.3 *
Aristolochia debilis Fruit -- 40.0 0.3 *
Rubus chamaemorus Fruit 5.3 40.0 0.3 *
Pueraria pseudohirsuta Root 21.0 30.0 0.3 *
Helianthus annuus Seed 46.0 54.0 0.3 *
Celosia cristata Flower -- 39.0 0.3 *
Nyssa sylvatica Stem 6.0 132.0 0.2 *
Asimina triloba Fruit 9.0 38.0 0.2 *
Bertholletia excelsa Seed 41.0 53.0 0.2 *
Lupinus albus Seed 47.0 53.0 0.2 *
Prunus persica Fruit 0.45 37.5 0.2 *
Thymus vulgaris Plant 55.0 74.0 0.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Angelica dahurica Root -- 29.0 0.2 *
Rubus idaeus Fruit 4.0 37.0 0.2 Revised USDA data received 1993.
Brassica oleracea var. italica Leaf 4.0 118.0 0.2 *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l. Leaf 4.0 118.0 0.2 *
Rhus copallina Stem 7.0 128.0 0.2 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobus Seed 43.0 51.0 0.2 *
Piper nigrum Fruit 11.2 35.7 0.2 *
Malus domestica Fruit -- 35.0 0.1 *
Pinus edulis Seed 40.0 50.0 0.1 *
Phaseolus vulgaris Seed 19.0 50.0 0.1 *
Cicer arietinum Seed 33.0 50.0 0.1 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Abelmoschus manihot Leaf 12.5 108.0 0.1 *
Amaranthus sp. Leaf 9.0 108.0 0.1 *
Carya ovata Shoot 7.0 342.0 0.1 *
Valerianella locusta Plant 62.0 64.5 0.1 *
Eucommia ulmoides Bark -- 14.0 0.1 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Cynara cardunculus Flower 4.0 36.0 0.1 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Hyoscyamus niger Seed -- 48.0 0.1 *
Amomum xanthioides Seed -- 48.0 0.1 *
Foeniculum vulgare Fruit 7.1 33.0 0.1 *
Glehnia littoralis Root -- 26.0 0.1 *
Polystichum polyblepharum Plant 34.0 60.0 0.1 *
Petasites japonicus Plant 21.0 60.0 0.1 Chem. & Pharm. Bull. 38: 2205.
Liquidambar styraciflua Leaf 12.0 98.0 0.1 *
Rhus copallina Leaf 5.0 96.0 0.1 *
Juniperus virginiana Shoot 7.0 317.0 0.1 *
Mentha pulegium Plant -- 56.0 0.0 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Houttuynia cordata Plant -- 56.0 0.0 Suziki, A., Morimoto, I., and Okitzu, T., Elution of Metals from Crude Drugs, Shoykugaku Zasshi 36(3):190-195.
Ipomoea aquatica Leaf 12.3 92.0 0.0 *
Carya ovata Seed -- 46.0 0.0 *
Juglans nigra Seed -- 46.0 0.0 *
Pinus pinea Seed 42.0 46.0 0.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cucumis melo Fruit 1.5 31.0 0.0 *
Glechoma hederacea Plant 46.0 53.0 0.0 Chem. & Pharm. Bull. 38: 2205.
Viscum album Leaf -- 86.0 0.0 *
Secale cereale Seed 35.0 45.0 -0.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Sophora angustifolia Root 10.0 24.0 -0.0 *
Paeonia lactiflora Root 15.0 24.0 -0.0 *
Pulsatilla chinensis Root -- 24.0 -0.0 *
Syzygium aromaticum Fruit 10.0 30.0 -0.0 *
Agathosma betulina Leaf -- 84.0 -0.0 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Barosma betulina Leaf -- 84.0 -0.0 *
Perilla frutescens Plant -- 50.0 -0.0 Suziki, A., Morimoto, I., and Okitzu, T., Elution of Metals from Crude Drugs, Shoykugaku Zasshi 36(3):190-195.
Origanum vulgare Plant 39.0 49.0 -0.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Fallopia japonica Plant 42.0 49.0 -0.0 Chem. & Pharm. Bull. 38: 2205.
Brassica pekinensis Leaf 66.5 80.0 -0.0 *
Brassica rapa Root 2.0 23.0 -0.1 *
Mentha spicata Leaf 11.0 75.0 -0.1 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Rubus chingii Fruit -- 28.0 -0.1 *
Elettaria cardamomum Fruit 23.0 28.0 -0.1 *
Sechium edule Leaf 0.5 73.0 -0.1 *
Sassafras albidum Stem 4.0 111.0 -0.1 *
Chondrus crispus Plant -- 44.0 -0.1 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Lens culinaris Seed 37.0 42.0 -0.1 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Origanum majorana Plant 32.0 43.0 -0.1 *
Boehmeria nivea Plant 32.0 43.0 -0.1 *
Vitis vinifera Fruit 0.4 27.0 -0.1 *
Peucedanum decursivum Plant 23.0 42.0 -0.1 *
Pyrus communis Fruit 0.15 26.6 -0.1 *
Senna occidentalis Seed -- 41.0 -0.1 *
Jussiaea repens Plant -- 40.0 -0.1 *
Brassica juncea Leaf 6.0 65.0 -0.1 *
Alisma plantago-aquatica Rhizome 54.0 68.0 -0.1 *
Rhodymenia palmata Plant -- 39.0 -0.1 *
Rosmarinus officinalis Plant 30.0 38.0 -0.1 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Solanum melongena Fruit 18.0 25.6 -0.1 *
Corylus avellana Seed 20.0 39.0 -0.2 *
Taraxacum mongolicum Plant -- 34.0 -0.2 *
Syzygium aromaticum Flower 10.0 30.0 -0.2 *
Zingiber officinale Rhizome -- 57.0 -0.2 *
Nyssa sylvatica Leaf 2.0 55.0 -0.2 *
Ligustrum japonicum Fruit -- 24.0 -0.2 *
Ligustrum lucidum Fruit -- 24.0 -0.2 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Capsicum frutescens Fruit 3.0 24.0 -0.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cucurbita maxima Leaf 7.6 54.0 -0.2 *
Prunus armeniaca Seed 2.0 38.0 -0.2 *
Vigna unguiculata Seed 35.0 38.0 -0.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Plantago asiatica Plant -- 31.0 -0.2 *
Broussonetia papyrifera Fruit -- 23.0 -0.2 *
Xanthosoma sagittifolium Root 5.0 19.0 -0.2 *
Manihot esculenta Root 4.0 19.0 -0.2 *
Urtica dioica Root -- 19.0 -0.2 *
Juglans cinerea Seed 26.0 37.0 -0.2 *
Prunus dulcis Seed 26.0 37.0 -0.2 *
Mentha arvensis var. piperascens Plant -- 28.0 -0.2 Suziki, A., Morimoto, I., and Okitzu, T., Elution of Metals from Crude Drugs, Shoykugaku Zasshi 36(3):190-195.
Geranium thunbergii Plant -- 28.0 -0.2 *
Lycopodium clavatum Plant -- 28.0 -0.2 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Schizonepeta tenuifolia Plant -- 28.0 -0.2 *
Quisqualis indica Fruit -- 22.0 -0.2 *
Citrus paradisi Fruit -- 22.0 -0.2 *
Apium graveolens Leaf 1.0 44.0 -0.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Tephrosia candida Plant -- 26.0 -0.3 *
Stevia rebaudiana Plant -- 26.0 -0.3 Kinghorn, A. D. (Ed.) 2002. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Stevia. The genus Stevia. Taylor & Francis. New York, NY. 211 pp.
Rhizophora mangle Leaf -- 43.0 -0.3 *
Lophatherum gracile Plant -- 25.0 -0.3 *
Scutellaria baicalensis Root 17.0 18.0 -0.3 *
Gentiana scabra Root -- 18.0 -0.3 *
Platycodon grandiflorum Root 13.0 18.0 -0.3 *
Cinnamomum aromaticum Bark 4.0 10.0 -0.3 *
Cinnamomum burmannii Bark -- 10.0 -0.3 *
Polygonum multiflorum Plant -- 24.5 -0.3 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Brassica oleracea var. capitata l. Leaf 2.0 41.0 -0.3 *
Ribes nigrum Fruit 2.0 21.0 -0.3 *
Catalpa ovata Fruit -- 21.0 -0.3 *
Chaenomeles lagenaria Fruit -- 21.0 -0.3 *
Zizyphus jujuba Fruit -- 21.0 -0.3 *
Brassica nigra Leaf 2.0 40.0 -0.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Arachis hypogaea Seed 31.0 35.0 -0.3 *
Rosmarinus officinalis Leaf 9.0 38.0 -0.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Artemisia capillaris Plant -- 22.0 -0.3 *
Chamissoa altissima Leaf 4.0 36.0 -0.3 Tramil
Artemisia herba-alba Plant 10.0 21.0 -0.3 *
Lycium chinense Fruit -- 20.0 -0.3 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Psidium guajava Fruit 2.0 20.0 -0.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Pimenta dioica Fruit 11.0 20.0 -0.3 *
Elaeagnus umbellatus Fruit 3.0 20.0 -0.3 *
Dioscorea alata Root 2.0 17.0 -0.3 *
Atractylodes lancea Rhizome -- 33.0 -0.3 *
Cyperus rotundus Rhizome -- 33.0 -0.3 *
Allium cepa Seed -- 34.0 -0.3 *
Phaseolus acutifolius Seed 25.0 34.0 -0.3 *
Cajanus cajan Seed 25.0 34.0 -0.3 *
Cinnamomum verum Leaf -- 34.0 -0.3 *
Atractylodes ovata Rhizome 26.0 32.0 -0.3 *
Erythroxylum novogranatense Leaf 16.0 33.0 -0.3 *
Camellia sinensis Leaf -- 30.0 -0.3 *
Anemarrhena asphodeloides Rhizome 19.0 27.0 -0.3 *
Siegesbeckia orientalis Plant -- 17.0 -0.3 *
Quercus velutina Stem 5.0 93.0 -0.3 *
Erythroxylum coca Leaf 18.0 29.0 -0.3 *
Eriobotrya japonica Leaf -- 28.0 -0.4 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Brassica oleracea var. sabellica l. Leaf 4.0 28.0 -0.4 *
Quercus phellos Stem 2.0 92.0 -0.4 *
Symphoricarpos orbiculatus Stem 2.0 92.0 -0.4 *
Magnolia officinalis Bark -- 9.0 -0.4 *
Sorbus aucubaria Fruit 1.0 18.0 -0.4 *
Euodia rutaecarpa Fruit -- 18.0 -0.4 *
Nardostachys chinensis Rhizome -- 22.0 -0.4 *
Curcuma longa Rhizome -- 22.0 -0.4 *
Diospyros virginiana Leaf 5.0 25.0 -0.4 *
Panax japonicus Rhizome -- 20.0 -0.4 *
Cistanche salsa Plant -- 13.0 -0.4 *
Erythroxylum novogranatense Leaf 19.0 22.0 -0.4 *
Cimicifuga dahurica Rhizome -- 18.0 -0.4 *
Actaea dahurica Rhizome -- 18.0 -0.4 Suziki, A., Morimoto, I., and Okitzu, T., Elution of Metals from Crude Drugs, Shoykugaku Zasshi 36(3):190-195.
Eriocaulon sp Leaf -- 21.0 -0.4 *
Blechnum orientale Rhizome -- 17.0 -0.4 *
Belamcanda chinensis Rhizome -- 17.0 -0.4 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Drynaria fortunei Rhizome -- 17.0 -0.4 *
Forsythia suspensa Fruit -- 17.0 -0.4 *
Fragaria spp Fruit 1.1 17.0 -0.4 *
Gardenia jasminoides Fruit 10.0 17.0 -0.4 *
Sambucus nigra Fruit 3.0 17.0 -0.4 *
Cassia tora Seed -- 31.0 -0.4 *
Vigna radiata Seed 26.0 31.0 -0.4 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus persica Seed -- 31.0 -0.4 *
Angelica laxiflora Root -- 15.0 -0.4 *
Morinda sp Root -- 15.0 -0.4 *
Rumex acetosa Leaf 2.0 20.0 -0.4 *
Cnidium officinale Rhizome -- 16.0 -0.4 *
Notopterygium incisum Rhizome -- 16.0 -0.4 *
Sinomenium acutum Rhizome -- 15.0 -0.4 *
Equisetum hyemale Plant -- 10.0 -0.4 *
Arisaema consanguineum Rhizome -- 14.0 -0.4 *
Dioscorea bulbifera Rhizome -- 12.0 -0.4 *
Gastrodia elata Rhizome -- 12.0 -0.4 *
Magnolia denudata Flower -- 25.0 -0.4 *
Magnolia fargesii Flower -- 25.0 -0.4 *
Prunella vulgaris Flower -- 25.0 -0.4 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Magnolia kobus Flower -- 25.0 -0.4 *
Tussilago farfara Flower -- 25.0 -0.4 *
Scutellaria lateriflora Plant 1.2 8.6 -0.4 *
Pistacia vera Seed 3.0 30.0 -0.4 *
Hordeum vulgare Seed 20.0 30.0 -0.4 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Juglans regia Seed 25.0 30.0 -0.4 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Persea americana Fruit 4.0 16.0 -0.4 *
Artocarpus heterophyllus Fruit 4.0 16.0 -0.4 *
Ribes rubrum Fruit 2.0 16.0 -0.4 *
Citrus aurantium Fruit -- 16.0 -0.4 *
Ribes uva-crispa Fruit 1.0 16.0 -0.4 *
Ephedra spp Plant -- 8.0 -0.4 *
Rheum palmatum Rhizome 9.0 10.0 -0.4 *
Rehmannia glutinosa Root -- 14.0 -0.4 *
Sophora subprostrata Root -- 14.0 -0.4 *
Polygonum multiflorum Rhizome -- 8.0 -0.4 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Phoenix dactylifera Seed 0.6 29.0 -0.5 Abstract (See species file)
Raphanus sativus Seed -- 29.0 -0.5 *
Rosa laevigata Fruit -- 15.0 -0.5 *
Annona cherimola Fruit 3.0 15.0 -0.5 *
Spirulina spp. Plant -- 5.3 -0.5 *
Stellaria media Plant 0.4 5.2 -0.5 *
Albizia julibrissin Bark 7.0 8.0 -0.5 *
Anthriscus cerefolium Leaf 9.0 10.0 -0.5 *
Phytelephas aequatorialis Flower 7.0 24.0 -0.5 KOZIOL & PEDERSEN. 1993. PHYTELEPHAS AEQUATORIALIS(ARECACEAE) IN HUMAN AND ANIMAL NUTRITION. ECON. BOT. 47:401-307.
Euphrasia officinalis Plant 0.5 3.5 -0.5 *
Silybum marianum Plant -- 3.3 -0.5 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Colocasia esculenta Leaf -- 6.6 -0.5 *
Nelumbo nucifera Seed -- 28.0 -0.5 *
Glycyrrhiza uralensis Root 11.0 13.0 -0.5 *
Scrophularia buergeriana Root -- 13.0 -0.5 *
Ocimum basilicum Leaf 5.0 6.0 -0.5 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Genipa americana Fruit 3.0 14.0 -0.5 *
Citrus medica Fruit -- 14.0 -0.5 *
Vaccinium vitis-idaea Fruit 1.7 14.0 -0.5 *
Crataegus cuneata Fruit -- 14.0 -0.5 *
Salvia officinalis Leaf 1.0 5.9 -0.5 *
Ephedra sinica Plant 0.4 2.1 -0.5 *
Eupatorium perfoliatum Plant 0.2 2.0 -0.5 *
Asparagus officinalis Shoot 12.0 124.0 -0.5 *
Urtica dioica Leaf 0.9 4.7 -0.5 *
Curcuma longa Plant 0.5 1.5 -0.5 *
Turnera diffusa Leaf 0.8 3.7 -0.5 *
Centella asiatica Leaf 0.4 3.4 -0.5 *
Stachys officinalis Plant 0.1 0.8 -0.5 *
Silybum marianum Leaf 0.7 3.3 -0.5 *
Fucus vesiculosus Plant 0.1 0.6 -0.5 *
Ginkgo biloba Leaf 0.6 2.3 -0.5 *
Senna alexandrina Leaf 0.4 1.9 -0.5 *
Eriodictyon californicum Leaf 0.4 1.7 -0.5 *
Thymus vulgaris Leaf 0.3 1.5 -0.5 *
Aloe spp. Leaf -- 1.1 -0.5 *
Citrus sinensis Fruit 0.9 13.0 -0.5 *
Verbascum thapsus Leaf 0.2 0.4 -0.5 *
Lobelia inflata Leaf 0.1 0.4 -0.5 *
Polygala tenuifolia Root -- 12.0 -0.5 *
Salvia miltiorrhiza Root -- 12.0 -0.5 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Averrhoa carambola Fruit 1.0 12.0 -0.6 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cornus officinalis Fruit -- 12.0 -0.6 *
Pinellia ternata Tuber 14.0 18.0 -0.6 *
Mangifera indica Fruit 0.4 11.4 -0.6 *
Cocos nucifera Seed 9.0 25.0 -0.6 *
Firmiana simplex Seed -- 25.0 -0.6 *
Ipomoea batatas Root 2.0 11.0 -0.6 *
Pinus echinata Shoot 6.0 88.0 -0.6 *
Castanea dentata Seed 10.0 24.0 -0.6 *
Chenopodium album Seed -- 24.0 -0.6 *
Vitis vinifera Stem -- 75.0 -0.6 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Allium sativum var. sativum Bulb -- 15.3 -0.6 *
Lonicera japonica Flower -- 21.0 -0.6 *
Santalum acuminatum Fruit 2.0 9.0 -0.6 *
Citrus aurantiifolia Fruit 1.0 9.0 -0.6 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vaccinium myrtillus Fruit 1.0 8.7 -0.6 *
Ophiopogon japonicus Tuber 7.0 16.0 -0.7 *
Bletilla striata Tuber -- 16.0 -0.7 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Artocarpus altilis Fruit 1.2 8.0 -0.7 *
Citrullus lanatus Fruit -- 8.0 -0.7 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Citrus reticulata Fruit 0.8 8.0 -0.7 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Portulaca oleracea Shoot 3.0 60.0 -0.7 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Capsicum annuum Fruit 2.0 7.7 -0.7 *
Vigna aconitifolia Seed 19.0 21.0 -0.7 *
Ficus carica Fruit 1.0 7.0 -0.7 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Vaccinium corymbosum Fruit 1.0 7.0 -0.7 *
Murraya sp Fruit 1.0 7.0 -0.7 *
Prunus cerasus Fruit 1.0 7.0 -0.7 *
Asparagus lucidus Root 7.0 8.0 -0.7 *
Myristica fragrans Seed 13.0 20.0 -0.7 *
Zea mays Seed 4.0 20.0 -0.7 *
Coix lacryma-jobi Seed -- 20.0 -0.7 Suziki, A., Morimoto, I., and Okitzu, T., Elution of Metals from Crude Drugs, Shoykugaku Zasshi 36(3):190-195.
Canavalia ensiformis Seed -- 20.0 -0.7 *
Musa x paradisiaca Fruit 1.0 6.5 -0.7 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Ananas comosus Fruit 0.7 6.0 -0.7 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Amphicarpaea bracteata Shoot -- 40.0 -0.7 *
Urtica dioica Seed -- 19.0 -0.7 *
Triticum aestivum Seed 12.0 19.0 -0.7 *
Serenoa repens Fruit 0.7 5.2 -0.8 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Macadamia spp Seed 17.0 18.0 -0.8 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Annona muricata Fruit -- 4.0 -0.8 *
Phoenix dactylifera Fruit 3.0 4.0 -0.8 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Fritillaria thunbergii Bulb -- 12.0 -0.8 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Quercus rubra Seed -- 17.0 -0.8 *
Castanea mollisima Seed 8.0 17.0 -0.8 *
Dioscorea villosa Root 1.3 5.6 -0.8 *
Aconitum carmichaelii Tuber -- 13.0 -0.8 *
Paeonia moutan Root Bark 10.0 15.0 -0.8 *
Paeonia suffruticosa Root Bark 10.0 15.0 -0.8 *
Genipa americana Seed -- 16.0 -0.8 *
Areca catechu Seed -- 16.0 -0.8 *
Simmondsia chinensis Seed -- 16.0 -0.8 *
Echinacea purpurea Root 1.3 5.1 -0.8 *
Echinacea spp Root -- 5.1 -0.8 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Astragalus membranaceus Root 0.8 5.0 -0.8 *
Spondias dulcis Fruit -- 1.9 -0.9 *
Brassica rapa Seed -- 15.0 -0.9 *
Opuntia ficus-indica Seed -- 15.0 -0.9 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Spondias tuberosa Fruit -- 1.33 -0.9 *
Eleutherococcus senticosus Root 0.9 4.2 -0.9 *
Apium graveolens Fruit 0.3 1.2 -0.9 *
Inula helenium Root 1.0 3.9 -0.9 *
Parthenium integrifolium Root 0.6 3.7 -0.9 *
Centella asiatica Bark -- 3.4 -0.9 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Gentiana lutea Root 0.6 2.9 -0.9 *
Armoracia rusticana Root 0.5 2.9 -0.9 *
Symphytum officinale Root -- 2.8 -0.9 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Smilax officinalis Root 0.5 2.6 -0.9 *
Smilax spp Root 0.5 2.6 -0.9 *
Quercus stellata Stem 4.0 52.0 -1.0 *
Asparagus officinalis Root 0.2 2.3 -1.0 *
Arctium lappa Root 0.5 2.2 -1.0 *
Ruscus aculeatus Root 0.6 2.1 -1.0 *
Tragopogon porrifolius Root -- 2.0 -1.0 *
Harpagophytum procumbens Root 0.3 1.8 -1.0 *
Hydrastis canadensis Root 0.4 1.6 -1.0 *
Castanea sativa Seed 4.0 10.0 -1.0 *
Yucca baccata Root 0.3 1.4 -1.0 *
Juncus effusus Pith -- 38.0 -1.0 *
Taraxacum officinale Root 0.2 1.3 -1.0 *
Quercus alba Bark 0.6 2.4 -1.0 *
Salix alba Bark 0.4 2.1 -1.0 *
Glycyrrhiza glabra Root 0.1 0.3 -1.0 *
Ginkgo biloba Seed 3.0 8.0 -1.1 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Morus alba Root Bark 9.0 14.0 -1.1 *
Tabebuia heptaphylla Bark 0.1 0.7 -1.2 *
Plantago major Seed 0.8 2.5 -1.2 *
Plantago psyllium Seed 0.5 2.1 -1.2 *
Phaseolus coccineus Seed -- 2.0 -1.2 *
Foeniculum vulgare Seed 0.1 0.7 -1.3 *
Dendrobium nobile Stem -- 26.0 -1.3 *
Hordeum vulgare Sprout Seedling -- 20.0 -1.4 Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Hordeum vulgare Stem -- 21.0 -1.4 *
Akebia quinata Stem -- 10.0 -1.6 *
Panax ginseng Fruit -- -- *
Panax ginseng Petiole -- -- *
Crataegus rhipidophylla Fruit -- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Panax ginseng Stem -- -- *
Panax ginseng Root -- -- *
Humulus lupulus Fruit -- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Juglans nigra Pericarp -- -- *
Allium sativum var. sativum Root -- -- *
Stevia rebaudiana Leaf -- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Chamaemelum nobile Flower -- -- *
Carthamus tinctorius Flower -- -- *
Elytrigia repens Plant -- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Rubus idaeus Leaf -- -- *
Allium ampeloprasum Plant -- -- *
Polygonum multiflorum Root -- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Zingiber officinale Root -- -- *
Acorus calamus Rhizome -- -- Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.
Mentha x piperita Leaf -- -- *
Berberis vulgaris Bark -- -- *
Artemisia cina Plant -- -- *
Phytelephas aequatorialis Mesocarp 13.0 37.0 KOZIOL & PEDERSEN. 1993. PHYTELEPHAS AEQUATORIALIS(ARECACEAE) IN HUMAN AND ANIMAL NUTRITION. ECON. BOT. 47:401-307.
Myristica fragrans Aril -- 20.0 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Trifolium pratense Flower -- -- *
Achillea millefolium Plant -- -- *
Nepeta cataria Plant -- -- *
Symphytum officinale Leaf -- -- *
Carica papaya Fruit -- -- *
Lygodium japonicum Pollen Or Spore -- 23.0 *
Juglans nigra Fruit -- -- *
Cnicus benedictus Plant -- -- *
Passiflora incarnata Flower -- -- *
Rheum rhabarbarum Pt 1.0 46.0 *
Chrysanthemum parthenium Plant -- -- *
Althaea officinalis Root -- -- *
Avena sativa Plant -- -- *
Nasturtium officinale Plant -- -- *
Cichorium intybus Root -- -- *
Prunus persica Bark -- -- *
Petroselinum crispum Plant -- -- *
Angelica sinensis Root -- -- *
Juglans nigra Hull Husk -- -- *
Larrea tridentata Plant -- -- *
Frangula purshiana Bark -- -- *
Cimicifuga racemosa Root -- -- *
Hibiscus sabdariffa Flower -- -- *
Vaccinium macrocarpon Fruit -- -- *
Juniperus communis Fruit -- -- *
Rumex crispus Root -- -- *
Cymbopogon citratus Plant -- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Chrysanthemum parthenium Leaf -- -- *
Crataegus laevigata Flower -- -- *
Gymnema sylvestre Leaf -- -- *
Medicago sativa Plant -- -- *
Amorphophallus konjac Root -- -- *
Equisetum arvense Plant -- -- *
Inula helenium Plant -- -- *
Myrica cerifera Bark -- -- *
Hydrangea arborescens Root -- -- *
Rosa canina Fruit -- -- *
Trigonella foenum-graecum Seed -- -- *
Bupleurum chinense Root -- -- *
Ruscus aculeatus Bark -- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Valeriana officinalis Root -- -- *
Humulus lupulus Flower -- -- *
Borago officinalis Plant -- -- Abstract (See species file)
Actaea racemosa Root -- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Caulophyllum thalictroides Root -- -- *
Ulmus rubra Bark -- -- *
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Leaf -- -- *
Schisandra chinensis Fruit -- -- *
Tanacetum parthenium Plant -- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Crataegus laevigata Fruit -- -- *
Artemisia dracunculus Plant -- -- *
Berberis vulgaris Root -- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Panax ginseng Leaf -- -- *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.