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Total Plants: 199
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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Abelmoschus esculentus Fruit 480.0 8700.0 2.6 *
Abrus precatorius Seed -- -- Zaidi, Z. H., Sdiqui, B. S., Naim, Z. 1971. Chemical Investigations of Seeds of Abrus precatorius. Pak. J. Sci. Ind. Res., 14: 350.
Acacia farnesiana Leaf 2240.0 12010.0 1.1 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Albizia lebbeck Seed -- -- Wealth of India.
Allium cepa Bulb 290.0 3161.0 -1.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Allium sativum var. sativum Leaf -- -- *
Allium schoenoprasum Leaf 810.0 10160.0 0.6 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Allium ampeloprasum Plant -- -- *
Allium sativum var. sativum Bulb 0.6 6200.0 1.0 *
Aloe vera Leaf -- 5073.0 -0.8 *
Alpinia galanga Leaf -- -- *
Amaranthus sp. Leaf 800.0 9624.0 0.4 *
Anacardium occidentale Seed 4910.0 4995.0 -0.6 *
Ananas comosus Fruit 58.0 889.0 -0.6 *
Angelica sinensis Root -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Angelica archangelica Leaf -- -- *
Apium graveolens Pt 90.0 1865.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Arachis hypogaea Seed 10630.0 13198.0 1.3 *
Arctium lappa Root 180.0 900.0 -1.8 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Artemisia dracunculus Root -- -- *
Artemisia dracunculus Shoot -- -- *
Artemisia dracunculus Leaf -- -- *
Artocarpus altilis Fruit 190.0 645.0 -0.7 *
Asimina triloba Fruit 140.0 1501.0 -0.4 *
Asparagus officinalis Shoot 480.0 6194.0 -1.0 *
Avena sativa Seed 2000.0 14000.0 1.4 Jim Duke's personal files.*
Averrhoa carambola Fruit 230.0 2530.0 0.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Basella alba Leaf 480.0 6955.0 -0.3 *
Bertholletia excelsa Seed 4570.0 4728.0 -0.7 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Beta vulgaris Root 350.0 2760.0 1.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica rapa Leaf 290.0 6197.0 -0.5 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica oleracea var. viridis l. Leaf 420.0 6884.0 -0.3 *
Brassica nigra Leaf 1320.0 19440.0 3.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica oleracea var. italica Leaf 630.0 6766.0 -0.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica rapa Root 130.0 1600.0 -0.7 *
Brassica oleracea var. capitata l. Leaf 210.0 2807.0 -1.4 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica napus var. napobrassica Root 230.0 2225.0 0.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l. Flower 430.0 5555.0 *
Brassica oleracea var. sabellica l. Leaf 1170.0 7530.0 -0.1 *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l. Leaf 630.0 6766.0 -0.3 *
Brassica chinensis Leaf 290.0 6197.0 -0.5 *
Cajanus cajan Seed 4510.0 6015.0 -0.4 *
Calathea allouia Root 1805.0 1985.0 -0.0 *
Capsicum frutescens Fruit 420.0 3427.0 0.4 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Capsicum annuum Fruit 180.0 2455.0 0.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Carica papaya Fruit 50.0 448.0 -0.8 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Carum carvi Seed 6420.0 7125.0 -0.1 Revised USDA data received 1993.
Castanea sativa Seed 568.0 1251.0 -1.5 *
Castanea mollisima Seed 1536.0 2735.0 -1.2 *
Castanea dentata Seed 1585.0 2822.0 -1.1 *
Ceratonia siliqua Seed -- 16450.0 2.0 Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Chenopodium album Leaf 1750.0 11148.0 0.9 *
Cicer arietinum Seed 4790.0 5415.0 -0.5 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cichorium endivia Leaf 400.0 6441.0 -0.4 *
Citrullus lanatus Seed -- 10200.0 0.6 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Citrullus lanatus Fruit -- 1413.0 -0.4 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Citrus paradisi Fruit -- 61.0 -1.0 *
Citrus sinensis Fruit 160.0 1208.0 -0.5 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Citrus reticulata Fruit 110.0 887.0 -0.6 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cnidoscolus chayamansa Leaf 2170.0 10850.0 0.8 *
Coccinia grandis Flower -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cocos nucifera Seed 1030.0 1945.0 -1.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cocos nucifera Leaf -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Colocasia esculenta Root 550.0 1875.0 -0.2 *
Colocasia esculenta Leaf 1780.0 12415.0 1.2 *
Corchorus olitorius Leaf 830.0 11965.0 1.1 *
Coriandrum sativum Fruit -- -- *
Crocus sativus Bulb -- -- *
Cryptotaenia japonica Shoot -- -- *
Cryptotaenia japonica Root -- -- *
Cucumis sativus Fruit 90.0 2278.0 -0.1 *
Cucurbita pepo Fruit 130.0 5000.0 1.1 *
Cucurbita foetidissima Seed 11350.0 13680.0 1.4 *
Cucurbita spp Fruit 310.0 4905.0 1.0 *
Cucurbita pepo Seed 9275.0 12235.0 1.0 *
Daucus carota Root 200.0 1640.0 -0.6 *
Dioscorea pentaphylla Root 350.0 1885.0 -0.2 *
Fagopyrum esculentum Seed -- 2750.0 -1.2 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Ficus carica Fruit 320.0 1532.0 -0.4 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Foeniculum vulgare Seed 4100.0 4498.0 -0.8 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Foeniculum vulgare Fruit 4100.0 4498.0 0.9 *
Ginkgo biloba Seed 610.0 1665.0 -1.4 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Glechoma hederacea Plant -- -- Oriental Materia Medica (three volumes by Dr. Hsu and collaborators)
Glycine max Shoot -- -- *
Glycine max Seed 13800.0 15090.0 1.7 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Helianthus tuberosus Tuber -- 1715.0 -0.9 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Helianthus annuus Seed 6660.0 7035.0 -0.2 *
Hordeum vulgare Seed 2000.0 6000.0 -0.4 Jim Duke's personal files.*
Humulus lupulus Fruit -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Ipomoea aquatica Leaf 800.0 10625.0 0.7 *
Ipomoea batatas Root 460.0 2504.0 0.8 *
Juglans cinerea Seed 9770.0 10108.0 0.5 *
Juglans regia Seed 4390.0 4555.0 -0.7 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Juglans nigra Seed 7490.0 7830.0 0.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lablab purpureus Seed 1550.0 12788.0 1.2 *
Lactuca sativa Leaf 320.0 5333.0 -0.7 *
Larrea tridentata Plant -- 3100.0 -0.7 *
Lens culinaris Seed 7500.0 8445.0 0.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lens culinaris Sprout Seedling 2520.0 8400.0 -0.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lentinus edodes Fruit -- -- *
Lepidium meyenii Root -- 3060.0 1.7 Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Linum usitatissimum Seed -- 0.133 -1.8 *
Lupinus albus Seed 13600.0 15185.0 1.7 *
Lycopersicon esculentum Fruit 38.0 2479.0 0.0 *
Macadamia spp Seed 3370.0 3465.0 -1.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Malus domestica Fruit 40.0 249.0 -0.9 *
Mangifera indica Fruit 100.0 1600.0 -0.3 *
Manihot esculenta Root 400.0 1270.0 -1.2 *
Mentha spicata Leaf 990.0 6850.0 -0.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Mentha x piperita Leaf 1130.0 5295.0 -0.8 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Momordica charantia Seed -- 517.0 -1.7 Jim Duke's personal files.
Moringa oleifera Shoot 3470.0 16260.0 1.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Mucuna pruriens Seed 7975.0 16907.0 2.1 *
Murraya sp Fruit 320.0 922.0 -0.6 *
Musa x paradisiaca Fruit 240.0 932.0 -0.6 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Nasturtium officinale Herb 630.0 12600.0 1.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Nelumbo nucifera Seed 1000.0 3030.0 -1.1 *
Nelumbo nucifera Rhizome 290.0 1390.0 1.0 *
Nigella sativa Seed 12925.0 16530.0 2.0 *
Ocimum basilicum Leaf -- 4320.0 -1.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Oenothera biennis Seed 3400.0 3629.0 -1.0 *
Opuntia ficus-indica Seed -- 6590.0 -0.3 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Opuntia ficus-indica Bud -- 3220.0 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Oryza sativa Plant -- -- *
Pachyrhizus erosus Tuber 230.0 2120.0 -0.7 *
Panax ginseng Leaf -- -- *
Panax quinquefolius Plant -- -- *
Panax ginseng Root -- -- *
Papaver somniferum Seed 6810.0 7305.0 -0.1 *
Papaver bracteatum Seed 6700.0 8100.0 0.1 *
Passiflora incarnata Seed -- -- *
Passiflora incarnata Leaf -- -- *
Passiflora incarnata Stem -- -- *
Perideridia gairdneri Root -- 1905.0 -0.2 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Persea americana Fruit 390.0 1904.0 -0.2 *
Phaseolus acutifolius Seed 11250.0 12260.0 1.0 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Phaseolus vulgaris Seed 6080.0 6833.0 -0.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus vulgaris Fruit 420.0 4317.0 0.8 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus vulgaris Sprout Seedling 1440.0 15484.0 1.4 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus lunatus Seed 2200.0 8450.0 0.2 *
Phoenix dactylifera Fruit 10.0 1730.0 -0.3 *
Phyllanthus emblica Fruit 116.0 575.0 -0.8 *
Pinus pinea Seed 8780.0 11400.0 0.8 *
Pinus edulis Seed 4240.0 4505.0 -0.7 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Pistacia vera Seed 7140.0 7427.0 -0.1 *
Pisum sativum Seed 1130.0 5345.0 -0.6 *
Pisum sativum Fruit 990.0 9792.0 3.1 *
Plantago ovata Seed -- -- *
Plantago major Plant -- -- *
Portulaca oleracea Herb 220.0 4400.0 -1.0 *
Prunus domestica Fruit 60.0 405.0 -0.8 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus persica Fruit 180.0 1458.0 -0.4 *
Prunus cerasus Fruit -- -- *
Prunus dulcis Seed 7050.0 7374.0 -0.1 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus armeniaca Fruit 290.0 2125.0 -0.1 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Psidium cattleianum Fruit 70.0 360.0 -0.9 *
Psidium guajava Fruit 100.0 720.0 -0.7 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Psophocarpus tetragonolobus Seed 14570.0 15896.0 1.9 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobus Leaf 1260.0 5443.0 -0.7 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobus Tuber 3530.0 8286.0 1.6 *
Psoralea esculenta Root -- 1899.0 -0.2 Izadoost, M. & Robinson, T., Synergism & antagonism in the pharmacology of alkaloidal plants, pp 137-58 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds., Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture & Pharmacology, v. 2, 1987, 255pp.
Pyrus communis Fruit 30.0 185.0 -0.9 *
Raphanus sativus Root 130.0 2520.0 0.8 *
Rehmannia glutinosa Root 1000.0 3000.0 1.6 *
Rosmarinus officinalis Leaf 1000.0 3100.0 -1.4 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Salvia officinalis Plant -- -- Stitt, Paul. Why George should eat broccoli.
Sambucus nigra Fruit 2200.0 2900.0 0.2 *
Sambucus nigra Fruit Juice -- -- *
Sambucus canadensis Fruit 510.0 2524.0 0.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Secale cereale Seed 3390.0 3800.0 -0.9 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Sechium edule Fruit 350.0 5000.0 1.1 *
Senna obtusifolia Seed -- 4420.0 -0.8 *
Sesamum indicum Seed 4220.0 11818.0 0.9 *
Sinapis alba Seed 7440.0 7961.0 0.1 *
Solanum tuberosum Tuber 770.0 3900.0 -0.0 *
Solanum melongena Fruit 250.0 3593.0 0.5 *
Spinacia oleracea Plant 1080.0 12826.0 1.7 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Stachys officinalis Shoot -- -- *
Theobroma cacao Seed -- 5700.0 -0.5 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Thymus vulgaris Plant 2410.0 2603.0 -0.8 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Tilia sp. Fruit -- -- *
Trifolium pratense Plant -- -- *
Trigonella foenum-graecum Seed 6410.0 8400.0 0.2 *
Triticum aestivum Seed 1000.0 9000.0 0.3 *
Urtica dioica Leaf -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Vaccinium corymbosum Fruit 80.0 520.0 -0.8 *
Valeriana officinalis Root -- -- *
Valerianella locusta Plant 360.0 5000.0 -0.2 *
Vicia faba Seed 1960.0 10315.0 0.6 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna radiata Sprout Seedling 520.0 5462.0 -1.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna unguiculata Seed 7860.0 8584.0 0.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna radiata Seed 7140.0 7850.0 0.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna unguiculata Seed 1210.0 8631.0 0.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna unguiculata Fruit 1150.0 9465.0 2.9 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna angularis Seed 5910.0 6828.0 -0.2 *
Vitis vinifera Fruit 120.0 617.0 -0.7 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Zea mays Seed 1230.0 5117.0 -0.6 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Zingiber officinale Rhizome 200.0 1122.0 -1.0 *
Zingiber officinale Root 200.0 1122.0 -1.4 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.