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Total Plants: 400
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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Rhizophora mangle Bark 10000.0 520000.0 3.3 *
Ceratonia siliqua Bark 12000.0 500000.0 3.1 *
Eucalyptus citriodora Resin, Exudate, Sap -- 482000.0 1.4 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Arbutus unedo Bark -- 450000.0 2.7 *
Terminalia chebula Fruit 1090.0 355000.0 2.5 *
Rumex hymenosepalus Plant 180000.0 350000.0 3.9 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Acacia nilotica Fruit -- 349500.0 2.5 *
Punica granatum Pericarp 104000.0 336000.0 1.0 *
Anogeissus latifolia Leaf 322000.0 329000.0 2.7 *
Psidium guajava Bark 110000.0 300000.0 1.4 *
Byrsonima crassifolia Bark 172500.0 282600.0 1.2 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Juglans nigra Pericarp 33600.0 280000.0 -1.0 *
Rhus coriaria Leaf 210000.0 280000.0 2.1 Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Punica granatum Root Bark 20000.0 280000.0 0.9 *
Phyllanthus emblica Fruit -- 280000.0 1.8 *
Camellia sinensis Leaf 33800.0 270000.0 1.9 *
Rhus glabra Leaf -- 270000.0 1.9 *
Simarouba amara Bark 200000.0 270000.0 1.1 *
Melia azedarach Bark 180000.0 260000.0 1.0 *
Areca catechu Seed 150000.0 250000.0 2.1 *
Eucalyptus cornea Plant -- 250000.0 2.4 *
Punica granatum Stem Bark 100000.0 250000.0 1.4 *
Tsuga canadensis Root Bark -- 245000.0 0.5 *
Fallopia japonica Leaf 170000.0 240000.0 1.6 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Schinus molle Bark -- 230000.0 0.8 *
Terminalia bellirica Fruit 170000.0 214000.0 1.2 *
Agrimonia eupatoria Shoot 30000.0 210000.0 1.7 *
Vaccinium myrtillus Leaf 60000.0 200000.0 1.1 *
Acacia nilotica Resin, Exudate, Sap 170000.0 200000.0 -0.7 *
Sclerocarya caffra Leaf -- 200000.0 1.1 *
Quercus robur Bark 80000.0 200000.0 0.5 *
Vaccinium vitis-idaea Leaf 60000.0 200000.0 1.1 *
Terminalia catappa Fruit 60000.0 200000.0 1.0 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Alnus glutinosa Bark -- 200000.0 0.5 *
Geranium thunbergii Leaf -- 200000.0 1.1 *
Coriaria myrtifolia Leaf 100000.0 200000.0 1.1 *
Aegle marmelos Petiole -- 200000.0 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Plant 60000.0 200000.0 1.7 *
Quercus alba Bark 78500.0 200000.0 0.5 *
Jatropha curcas Resin, Exudate, Sap 116000.0 187000.0 -0.8 *
Tussilago farfara Leaf -- 170000.0 0.7 *
Sanguisorba officinalis Hs -- 170000.0 *
Sanguisorba officinalis Plant -- 170000.0 1.3 *
Pinus sylvestris Bark -- 169000.0 0.2 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Phyllanthus emblica Bark 80000.0 166400.0 0.2 *
Arbutus unedo Leaf -- 160000.0 0.6 *
Quercus rubra Bark -- 160000.0 0.2 *
Ilex paraguariensis Leaf 40000.0 160000.0 0.6 *
Terminalia arjuna Bark -- 158000.0 0.1 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Tsuga canadensis Bark 100000.0 150500.0 0.1 *
Anogeissus latifolia Bark 100000.0 150000.0 0.1 *
Mangifera indica Flower -- 150000.0 1.0 *
Stachys officinalis Plant 25200.0 150000.0 1.0 *
Ajuga reptans Plant -- 150000.0 1.0 *
Hamelia patens Bark -- 150000.0 0.1 *
Quillaja saponaria Bark -- 150000.0 0.1 *
Juglans nigra Fruit -- 147000.0 0.5 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Rumex acetosella Root 80000.0 140000.0 2.0 *
Myrtus communis Plant -- 140000.0 0.8 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Lythrum salicaria Flower -- 137000.0 0.8 *
Urtica dioica Leaf 59700.0 133000.0 0.3 Jim Duke's personal files.
Terminalia catappa Bark -- 130000.0 -0.1 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Fallopia japonica Stem 30000.0 130000.0 1.2 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Juglans regia Fruit -- 122000.0 0.3 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Vaccinium myrtillus Fruit 50000.0 120000.0 0.2 *
Rubus idaeus Leaf 16900.0 120000.0 0.1 *
Lythrum salicaria Leaf -- 120000.0 0.1 *
Lavandula angustifolia Flower 50000.0 120000.0 0.5 *
Lavandula angustifolia Plant -- 120000.0 0.5 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Salix alba Bark 20160.0 120000.0 -0.2 *
Atropa bella-donna Root -- 120000.0 1.4 *
Terminalia arjuna Fruit 70000.0 120000.0 0.2 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Ailanthus altissima Leaf -- 120000.0 0.1 *
Rhododendron ponticum Leaf 50000.0 120000.0 0.1 *
Castanea sativa Bark 40000.0 120000.0 -0.2 *
Paullinia cupana Seed 50000.0 120000.0 0.5 *
Pistacia lentiscus Leaf -- 113000.0 0.0 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Albizia lebbeck Bark 70000.0 110000.0 -0.3 Wealth of India.
Oenothera biennis Herb -- 110000.0 *
Punica granatum Leaf -- 110000.0 -0.0 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Juglans regia Leaf 90000.0 110000.0 -0.0 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Ceiba pentandra Bark -- 108200.0 -0.3 *
Prunella vulgaris Plant 45000.0 105800.0 0.3 *
Lythrum salicaria Stem -- 105000.0 0.6 *
Pinus kesiya Bark 70000.0 100000.0 -0.4 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Maclura pomifera Wood 90000.0 100000.0 1.2 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Sclerocarya caffra Bark 35000.0 100000.0 -0.4 *
Solanum nigrum Plant 70000.0 100000.0 0.2 *
Thymus vulgaris Leaf 16800.0 100000.0 -0.1 *
Pinus insularis Bark 70000.0 100000.0 -0.4 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Ligustrum vulgare Leaf 60000.0 100000.0 -0.1 *
Psidium guajava Leaf 90000.0 100000.0 -0.1 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Haematoxylum campechianum Wood -- 100000.0 1.2 *
Thymus vulgaris Plant 80000.0 100000.0 0.2 *
Mimosa pudica Root -- 100000.0 0.7 *
Zizyphus jujuba Fruit -- 100000.0 0.1 *
Filipendula ulmaria Shoot -- 93100.0 -0.1 *
Teucrium scorodonia Leaf 80000.0 90000.0 -0.3 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Symphytum officinale Plant 80000.0 90000.0 0.1 *
Anacardium occidentale Bark -- 90000.0 -0.4 *
Leonurus cardiaca Plant 21000.0 90000.0 0.1 *
Coffea arabica Seed -- 90000.0 0.1 *
Aegle marmelos Fruit -- 90000.0 -0.0 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Castanea sativa Leaf -- 90000.0 -0.3 *
Filipendula ulmaria Root -- 86200.0 0.3 *
Juniperus virginiana Bark 21000.0 86000.0 -0.5 *
Lythrum salicaria Root -- 85000.0 0.3 *
Satureja hortensis Plant 40000.0 85000.0 0.0 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Prosopis juliflora Bark 6000.0 84000.0 -0.5 *
Lonicera japonica Plant -- 80000.0 -0.1 *
Salvia officinalis Plant 20000.0 80000.0 -0.1 *
Cnicus benedictus Plant -- 80000.0 -0.1 *
Agrimonia eupatoria Leaf 50000.0 80000.0 -0.4 *
Hyssopus officinalis Plant 50000.0 80000.0 -0.1 Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jan-87.
Artemisia absinthium Leaf 40000.0 77000.0 -0.4 *
Serenoa repens Root -- 75800.0 -0.0 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Juglans regia Bark 53000.0 75100.0 -0.6 *
Thymus serpyllum Plant 50000.0 75000.0 -0.1 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Mentha aquatica Leaf -- 74000.0 -0.4 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Tamarindus indica Bark -- 70000.0 -0.6 *
Datura stramonium Plant -- 70000.0 -0.2 *
Robinia pseudoacacia Bark -- 70000.0 -0.6 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Punica granatum Root -- 70000.0 -0.2 Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Ligustrum vulgare Bark -- 70000.0 -0.6 *
Prunus cerasus Bark 50000.0 70000.0 -0.6 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Leaf 6960.0 70000.0 -0.5 *
Tamarindus indica Bl -- 70000.0 *
Marrubium vulgare Plant 65000.0 70000.0 -0.2 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Glechoma hederacea Plant 30000.0 70000.0 -0.2 *
Terminalia bellirica Bark 14000.0 70000.0 -0.6 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Prunus domestica Bark -- 68000.0 -0.6 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Prosopis juliflora Root -- 67000.0 -0.3 *
Acacia nilotica Seed -- 66100.0 -0.2 *
Quercus suber Cork 20000.0 65000.0 *
Ulmus rubra Bark 30000.0 65000.0 -0.7 *
Calendula officinalis Leaf -- 64500.0 -0.6 *
Manilkara zapota Fruit 31600.0 64500.0 -0.3 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Acacia nilotica Wood -- 63500.0 0.4 *
Melicoccus bijugatas Fruit 18800.0 60225.0 -0.3 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Aleurites moluccana Bark 40000.0 60000.0 -0.7 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Catalpa bignonioides Bark -- 60000.0 -0.7 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cuscuta europaea Root -- 60000.0 -0.5 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Rumex crispus Root 30000.0 60000.0 -0.5 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Azadirachta indica Stem Bark -- 60000.0 -0.4 *
Dodonaea viscosa Leaf -- 59800.0 -0.6 *
Thuja occidentalis Branches -- 59000.0 *
Dodonaea viscosa Bark -- 58000.0 -0.7 *
Plantago major Plant 40000.0 57000.0 -0.4 *
Berberis vulgaris Fruit -- 55600.0 -0.4 Jim Duke's personal files.
Serenoa repens Stem -- 54800.0 -0.5 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Agrimonia eupatoria Bark -- 52800.0 -0.8 Wealth of India.
Hippophae rhamnoides Shoot 40000.0 50000.0 -0.7 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Juniperus communis Fruit -- 50000.0 -0.4 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Geranium thunbergii Plant -- 50000.0 -0.5 *
Ocimum basilicum Plant -- 50000.0 -0.5 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Teucrium chamaedrys Plant -- 50000.0 -0.5 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Persea americana Leaf -- 47000.0 -0.8 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Zizyphus jujuba Leaf -- 46000.0 -0.8 *
Aspalathus linearis Shoot -- 44000.0 -0.8 *
Lagochilus inebrians Plant 20000.0 40000.0 -0.6 *
Achillea millefolium Plant 28000.0 40000.0 -0.6 *
Mentha pulegium Plant -- 40000.0 -0.6 *
Turnera diffusa Leaf 8400.0 40000.0 -0.9 *
Chimaphila umbellata Plant -- 40000.0 -0.6 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco Bark 30000.0 40000.0 -0.9 *
Ficus carica Leaf -- 36000.0 -0.9 Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Scutellaria galericulata Plant 28600.0 35000.0 -0.7 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Polygonum hydropiper Plant -- 35000.0 -0.7 *
Mercurialis annua Root -- 33500.0 -1.3 *
Artocarpus heterophyllus Bark -- 33000.0 -0.9 *
Cedrus deodora Leaf -- 32000.0 -1.0 *
Solanum tuberosum Leaf -- 32000.0 -1.0 *
Sambucus nigra Leaf 4400.0 30000.0 -1.0 *
Viburnum opulus Fruit -- 30000.0 -0.6 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Menyanthes trifoliata Plant -- 30000.0 -0.8 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Cornus florida Bark -- 30000.0 -1.0 *
Borago officinalis Plant -- 30000.0 -0.8 *
Marrubium vulgare Flower 26000.0 29000.0 -1.0 *
Medicago sativa Hay 27000.0 28000.0 *
Castanea sativa Seed 20000.0 28000.0 -0.6 *
Acacia nilotica Bark -- 27100.0 -1.0 *
Pachira aquatica Bark -- 27000.0 -1.0 *
Teucrium montanum Plant -- 22000.0 -0.9 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Phyllanthus emblica Leaf 18000.0 22000.0 -1.1 *
Piper betel Leaf 10000.0 20500.0 -1.1 *
Althaea officinalis Root -- 20000.0 -1.8 *
Viburnum prunifolium Root Bark -- 20000.0 -1.4 Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Rosa canina Fruit 3740.0 20000.0 -0.7 *
Sterculia urens Gum -- 20000.0 *
Phoenix dactylifera Fruit 200.0 18000.0 -0.7 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Hippophae rhamnoides Fruit -- 18000.0 -0.7 Abstract (See species file)
Gossypium sp Stem -- 17700.0 -1.4 *
Pogostemon cablin Plant -- 17000.0 -1.0 *
Acorus calamus Rhizome -- 15000.0 *
Tsuga canadensis Leaf -- 15000.0 -1.2 *
Ceratonia siliqua Fruit -- 15000.0 -0.8 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Eucalyptus citriodora Leaf -- 11600.0 -1.2 *
Holarrhena pubescens Bark -- 11400.0 -1.1 *
Argemone mexicana Plant -- 11000.0 -1.1 *
Actinidia chinensis Fruit -- 9500.0 -0.8 *
Prosopis juliflora Wood -- 9000.0 -0.9 *
Prunus persica Fruit -- 8000.0 -0.8 *
Prunus persica Leaf -- 8000.0 -1.3 *
Araucaria bidwillii Leaf -- 7000.0 -1.3 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Caesalpinia pulcherrima Leaf -- 7000.0 -1.3 *
Rubus idaeus Fruit -- 6200.0 -0.9 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Tussilago farfara Flower -- 6000.0 -1.4 *
Ononis spinosa Plant -- 5000.0 -1.1 *
Ficus carica Stem Bark -- 5000.0 -1.0 Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Ammi majus Seed -- 4500.0 -0.9 *
Myroxylon balsamum Plant -- 4000.0 -1.2 *
Araucaria bidwillii Wood -- 3000.0 -1.0 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Caesalpinia pulcherrima Wood -- 3000.0 -1.0 *
Solanum melongena Fruit -- 2000.0 -0.9 *
Punica granatum Fruit Juice -- 1700.0 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Solanum sessiliflorum Fruit 142.0 1420.0 -0.9 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Mangifera indica Seed -- 1100.0 -1.0 *
Prunus armeniaca Fruit 600.0 1000.0 -0.9 *
Panax quinquefolius Plant -- -- *
Piscidia piscipula Plant -- -- *
Eriobotrya japonica Leaf -- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Chamaemelum nobile Plant -- -- *
Schisandra chinensis Fruit -- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Ocimum basilicum Tissue Culture -- -- *
Santalum album Wood -- -- *
Teucrium marum Plant -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Quercus infectoria Plant -- -- *
Chamaesyce hypericifolia Plant -- -- *
Alpinia officinarum Rhizome -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Euphrasia officinalis Shoot -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Acacia catechu Plant -- -- *
Hedeoma pulegioides Plant -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Buxus sempervirens Leaf -- -- *
Iris x germanica Rhizome -- -- *
Illicium verum Fruit -- -- *
Euonymus atropurpureus Root -- -- *
Lycopus virginicus Plant -- -- *
Eriodictyon californicum Plant -- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Stillingia sylvatica Plant -- -- *
Tilia sp. Flower -- -- *
Yucca baccata Root -- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Matricaria recutita Plant -- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Mentha x piperita Plant -- -- *
Acorus calamus Plant -- -- *
Santolina chamaecyparissus Root -- -- *
Genipa americana Fruit -- -- *
Ballota nigra Plant -- -- *
Cinnamomum aromaticum Bark -- -- Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp.
Rosmarinus officinalis Plant -- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Ephedra nevadensis Plant -- -- *
Juglans cinerea Bark -- -- *
Anaphalis margaritacea Plant -- -- *
Iris versicolor Rhizome -- -- *
Symplocarpus foetidus Plant -- -- *
Vinca minor Plant -- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Vanilla planifolia Fruit -- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Gentiana lutea Plant -- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Aesculus hippocastanum Wood -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Sarcostemma acidum Plant -- -- *
Artemisia cina Flower -- -- *
Catha edulis Leaf -- -- *
Plantago ovata Plant -- -- *
Portulaca oleracea Plant -- -- *
Genista tinctoria Plant -- -- *
Paeonia lactiflora Root -- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Senecio aureus Plant -- -- *
Origanum majorana Plant -- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Cinnamomum aromaticum Plant -- -- *
Annona muricata Plant -- -- *
Zanthoxylum americanum Plant -- -- *
Spigelia marilandica Plant -- -- *
Cichorium intybus Plant -- -- *
Mitchella repens Plant -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Artemisia abrotanum Plant -- -- *
Conyza canadensis Plant -- -- *
Ocimum tenuiflorum Plant -- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Senna alata Leaf -- -- *
Teucrium polium Plant -- -- Rizk, A.F.M., The Phytochemistry of the Flora of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar, Kingprint, Richmond, UK, 1986.
Ginkgo biloba Leaf -- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Lantana camara Leaf -- -- *
Alisma plantago-aquatica Plant -- -- *
Morus alba Stem -- -- *
Centella asiatica Plant -- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Paeonia moutan Root Bark -- -- *
Capparis spinosa Plant -- -- *
Centaurea cyanus Flower -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cuminum cyminum Fruit -- -- *
Rosa laevigata Fruit -- -- *
Smilax china Root -- -- *
Cydonia oblonga Seed -- -- *
Lindera benzoin Plant -- -- *
Liquidambar orientalis Plant -- -- *
Saussurea lappa Root -- -- *
Mentha arvensis var. piperascens Plant -- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Carum carvi Plant -- -- *
Cytisus scoparius Flower -- -- *
Cinnamomum verum Plant -- -- *
Dipsacus fullonum Plant -- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Pistacia vera Plant -- -- *
Plantago psyllium Plant -- -- *
Malva neglecta Flower -- -- *
Citrus aurantium Fruit -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Annona reticulata Bark -- -- *
Paeonia officinalis Root -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Lepidium meyenii Root -- -- *
Vitis vinifera Seed -- -- *
Acacia senegal Plant -- -- Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
Taraxacum officinale Root -- -- *
Cocos nucifera Plant -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Croton eluteria Bark -- -- *
Syzygium cumini Fruit -- -- Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Sassafras albidum Root -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Guaiacum sp. Wood -- -- *
Adiantum capillus-veneris Plant -- -- *
Galium odoratum Plant -- -- *
Psidium guajava Root -- -- *
Guarea rusbyi Bark -- -- *
Marsdenia reichenbachii Plant -- -- *
Paeonia suffruticosa Root Bark -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Coriandrum sativum Fruit -- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Hydnocarpus kurzii Seed -- -- *
Anemone pulsatilla Plant -- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Frangula purshiana Plant -- -- *
Capsella bursa-pastoris Plant -- -- *
Cimicifuga racemosa Root -- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Sanguisorba minor Plant -- -- *
Schinus terebinthifolius Bark -- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Dioscorea bulbifera Tuber -- -- *
Scutellaria churchilliana Plant -- -- *
Syzygium aromaticum Plant -- -- *
Warburgia ugandensis Bark -- -- *
Tussilago farfara Rhizome -- -- *
Catharanthus roseus Leaf -- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Actaea cimicifuga Rhizome -- -- *
Ocimum sanctum Plant -- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Acacia tortilis Bark -- -- *
Acacia tortilis Leaf -- -- *
Liquidambar styraciflua Plant -- -- *
Viola tricolor Plant -- -- *
Salvia sclarea Plant -- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Cynara cardunculus Plant -- -- *
Bryonia alba Root -- -- *
Asclepias syriaca Sprout Seedling -- -- *
Fragaria spp Leaf -- -- *
Jateorhiza palmata Root -- -- *
Rhododendron ferrugineum Leaf -- -- *
Ribes uva-crispa Fruit -- -- *
Rubus fruticosus Leaf -- -- *
Acalypha indica Plant -- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Filipendula ulmaria Leaf -- -- *
Eupatorium odoratum Leaf -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Tamarindus indica Seed -- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Gardenia jasminoides Fruit -- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Prunus laurocerasus Leaf -- -- *
Cuminum cyminum Seed -- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Populus nigra Plant -- -- *
Pteridium aquilinum Plant -- -- *
Piper angustifolium Leaf -- -- *
Cinchona officinalis Bark -- -- *
Acacia leucophloea Plant -- -- *
Prunus serotina Bark -- -- *
Senna occidentalis Seed -- -- *
Krameria triandra Root -- -- *
Peucedanum ostruthium Root -- -- *
Swertia chirata Plant -- -- *
Mahonia aquifolium Plant -- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Phytolacca americana Root -- -- *
Aloysia citrodora Plant -- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Collinsonia canadensis Plant -- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Annona squamosa Plant -- -- *
Acacia melanoxylon Plant -- -- *
Scutellaria lateriflora Plant -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Tabernanthe iboga Root -- -- *
Actaea racemosa Root -- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Armoracia rusticana Plant -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Frangula alnus Bark -- -- *
Nepeta cataria Leaf -- -- *
Tridax procumbens Plant -- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Cola acuminata Seed -- -- *
Verbena officinalis Plant -- -- *
Phyllanthus emblica Twig -- -- *
Albizia julibrissin Bark -- -- *
Gaultheria procumbens Leaf -- -- *
Origanum creticum Plant -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Jatropha gossypifolia Leaf -- -- *
Prunus spinosa Fruit -- -- *
Veronica officinalis Plant -- -- *
Nigella sativa Seed -- -- *
Sterculia urens Bark -- -- *
Artemisia dracunculus Plant -- -- *
Gleditsia triacanthos Leaf -- -- *
Aesculus hippocastanum Flower -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Pausinystalia johimbe Bark -- -- *
Apocynum cannabinum Plant -- -- *
Berberis vulgaris Plant -- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Croton lechleri Plant -- -- Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Gelsemium sempervirens Root -- -- *
Chrysanthemum balsamita Plant -- -- *
Peumus boldus Leaf -- -- *
Sambucus canadensis Seed -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.