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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Anogeissus latifolia Leaf 322000.0 329000.0 2.7 *
Rhus coriaria Leaf 210000.0 280000.0 2.1 Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Simarouba amara Bark 200000.0 270000.0 1.1 *
Melia azedarach Bark 180000.0 260000.0 1.0 *
Rumex hymenosepalus Plant 180000.0 350000.0 3.9 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Byrsonima crassifolia Bark 172500.0 282600.0 1.2 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Acacia nilotica Resin, Exudate, Sap 170000.0 200000.0 -0.7 *
Fallopia japonica Leaf 170000.0 240000.0 1.6 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Terminalia bellirica Fruit 170000.0 214000.0 1.2 *
Areca catechu Seed 150000.0 250000.0 2.1 *
Jatropha curcas Resin, Exudate, Sap 116000.0 187000.0 -0.8 *
Psidium guajava Bark 110000.0 300000.0 1.4 *
Punica granatum Pericarp 104000.0 336000.0 1.0 *
Anogeissus latifolia Bark 100000.0 150000.0 0.1 *
Tsuga canadensis Bark 100000.0 150500.0 0.1 *
Coriaria myrtifolia Leaf 100000.0 200000.0 1.1 *
Punica granatum Stem Bark 100000.0 250000.0 1.4 *
Maclura pomifera Wood 90000.0 100000.0 1.2 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Psidium guajava Leaf 90000.0 100000.0 -0.1 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Juglans regia Leaf 90000.0 110000.0 -0.0 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Teucrium scorodonia Leaf 80000.0 90000.0 -0.3 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Symphytum officinale Plant 80000.0 90000.0 0.1 *
Quercus robur Bark 80000.0 200000.0 0.5 *
Rumex acetosella Root 80000.0 140000.0 2.0 *
Thymus vulgaris Plant 80000.0 100000.0 0.2 *
Phyllanthus emblica Bark 80000.0 166400.0 0.2 *
Quercus alba Bark 78500.0 200000.0 0.5 *
Pinus kesiya Bark 70000.0 100000.0 -0.4 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Albizia lebbeck Bark 70000.0 110000.0 -0.3 Wealth of India.
Solanum nigrum Plant 70000.0 100000.0 0.2 *
Pinus insularis Bark 70000.0 100000.0 -0.4 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Terminalia arjuna Fruit 70000.0 120000.0 0.2 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Marrubium vulgare Plant 65000.0 70000.0 -0.2 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Vaccinium myrtillus Leaf 60000.0 200000.0 1.1 *
Vaccinium vitis-idaea Leaf 60000.0 200000.0 1.1 *
Terminalia catappa Fruit 60000.0 200000.0 1.0 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Ligustrum vulgare Leaf 60000.0 100000.0 -0.1 *
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Plant 60000.0 200000.0 1.7 *
Urtica dioica Leaf 59700.0 133000.0 0.3 Jim Duke's personal files.
Juglans regia Bark 53000.0 75100.0 -0.6 *
Vaccinium myrtillus Fruit 50000.0 120000.0 0.2 *
Thymus serpyllum Plant 50000.0 75000.0 -0.1 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Agrimonia eupatoria Leaf 50000.0 80000.0 -0.4 *
Lavandula angustifolia Flower 50000.0 120000.0 0.5 *
Hyssopus officinalis Plant 50000.0 80000.0 -0.1 Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jan-87.
Prunus cerasus Bark 50000.0 70000.0 -0.6 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Rhododendron ponticum Leaf 50000.0 120000.0 0.1 *
Paullinia cupana Seed 50000.0 120000.0 0.5 *
Prunella vulgaris Plant 45000.0 105800.0 0.3 *
Plantago major Plant 40000.0 57000.0 -0.4 *
Aleurites moluccana Bark 40000.0 60000.0 -0.7 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Hippophae rhamnoides Shoot 40000.0 50000.0 -0.7 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Artemisia absinthium Leaf 40000.0 77000.0 -0.4 *
Ilex paraguariensis Leaf 40000.0 160000.0 0.6 *
Castanea sativa Bark 40000.0 120000.0 -0.2 *
Satureja hortensis Plant 40000.0 85000.0 0.0 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Sclerocarya caffra Bark 35000.0 100000.0 -0.4 *
Camellia sinensis Leaf 33800.0 270000.0 1.9 *
Juglans nigra Pericarp 33600.0 280000.0 -1.0 *
Manilkara zapota Fruit 31600.0 64500.0 -0.3 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Agrimonia eupatoria Shoot 30000.0 210000.0 1.7 *
Rumex crispus Root 30000.0 60000.0 -0.5 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Fallopia japonica Stem 30000.0 130000.0 1.2 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Glechoma hederacea Plant 30000.0 70000.0 -0.2 *
Ulmus rubra Bark 30000.0 65000.0 -0.7 *
Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco Bark 30000.0 40000.0 -0.9 *
Scutellaria galericulata Plant 28600.0 35000.0 -0.7 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Achillea millefolium Plant 28000.0 40000.0 -0.6 *
Medicago sativa Hay 27000.0 28000.0 *
Marrubium vulgare Flower 26000.0 29000.0 -1.0 *
Stachys officinalis Plant 25200.0 150000.0 1.0 *
Juniperus virginiana Bark 21000.0 86000.0 -0.5 *
Leonurus cardiaca Plant 21000.0 90000.0 0.1 *
Salix alba Bark 20160.0 120000.0 -0.2 *
Lagochilus inebrians Plant 20000.0 40000.0 -0.6 *
Salvia officinalis Plant 20000.0 80000.0 -0.1 *
Quercus suber Cork 20000.0 65000.0 *
Punica granatum Root Bark 20000.0 280000.0 0.9 *
Castanea sativa Seed 20000.0 28000.0 -0.6 *
Melicoccus bijugatas Fruit 18800.0 60225.0 -0.3 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Phyllanthus emblica Leaf 18000.0 22000.0 -1.1 *
Rubus idaeus Leaf 16900.0 120000.0 0.1 *
Thymus vulgaris Leaf 16800.0 100000.0 -0.1 *
Terminalia bellirica Bark 14000.0 70000.0 -0.6 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Ceratonia siliqua Bark 12000.0 500000.0 3.1 *
Rhizophora mangle Bark 10000.0 520000.0 3.3 *
Piper betel Leaf 10000.0 20500.0 -1.1 *
Turnera diffusa Leaf 8400.0 40000.0 -0.9 *
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Leaf 6960.0 70000.0 -0.5 *
Prosopis juliflora Bark 6000.0 84000.0 -0.5 *
Sambucus nigra Leaf 4400.0 30000.0 -1.0 *
Rosa canina Fruit 3740.0 20000.0 -0.7 *
Terminalia chebula Fruit 1090.0 355000.0 2.5 *
Prunus armeniaca Fruit 600.0 1000.0 -0.9 *
Phoenix dactylifera Fruit 200.0 18000.0 -0.7 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Solanum sessiliflorum Fruit 142.0 1420.0 -0.9 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Eucalyptus citriodora Leaf -- 11600.0 -1.2 *
Panax quinquefolius Plant -- -- *
Piscidia piscipula Plant -- -- *
Eriobotrya japonica Leaf -- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Cedrus deodora Leaf -- 32000.0 -1.0 *
Chamaemelum nobile Plant -- -- *
Schisandra chinensis Fruit -- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Ocimum basilicum Tissue Culture -- -- *
Santalum album Wood -- -- *
Rubus idaeus Fruit -- 6200.0 -0.9 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Teucrium marum Plant -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Quercus infectoria Plant -- -- *
Chamaesyce hypericifolia Plant -- -- *
Alpinia officinarum Rhizome -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Acorus calamus Rhizome -- 15000.0 *
Lonicera japonica Plant -- 80000.0 -0.1 *
Euphrasia officinalis Shoot -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Pistacia lentiscus Leaf -- 113000.0 0.0 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Acacia catechu Plant -- -- *
Hedeoma pulegioides Plant -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Pogostemon cablin Plant -- 17000.0 -1.0 *
Buxus sempervirens Leaf -- -- *
Calendula officinalis Leaf -- 64500.0 -0.6 *
Iris x germanica Rhizome -- -- *
Illicium verum Fruit -- -- *
Mangifera indica Flower -- 150000.0 1.0 *
Euonymus atropurpureus Root -- -- *
Mangifera indica Seed -- 1100.0 -1.0 *
Prunus domestica Bark -- 68000.0 -0.6 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Lycopus virginicus Plant -- -- *
Eriodictyon californicum Plant -- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Stillingia sylvatica Plant -- -- *
Tilia sp. Flower -- -- *
Solanum melongena Fruit -- 2000.0 -0.9 *
Yucca baccata Root -- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Matricaria recutita Plant -- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Mentha x piperita Plant -- -- *
Acorus calamus Plant -- -- *
Santolina chamaecyparissus Root -- -- *
Genipa americana Fruit -- -- *
Ballota nigra Plant -- -- *
Cinnamomum aromaticum Bark -- -- Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp.
Rosmarinus officinalis Plant -- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Arbutus unedo Bark -- 450000.0 2.7 *
Ephedra nevadensis Plant -- -- *
Juglans cinerea Bark -- -- *
Araucaria bidwillii Leaf -- 7000.0 -1.3 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Anaphalis margaritacea Plant -- -- *
Arbutus unedo Leaf -- 160000.0 0.6 *
Araucaria bidwillii Wood -- 3000.0 -1.0 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Agrimonia eupatoria Bark -- 52800.0 -0.8 Wealth of India.
Iris versicolor Rhizome -- -- *
Symplocarpus foetidus Plant -- -- *
Vinca minor Plant -- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Vanilla planifolia Fruit -- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Gentiana lutea Plant -- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Acacia nilotica Bark -- 27100.0 -1.0 *
Aesculus hippocastanum Wood -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Rhus glabra Leaf -- 270000.0 1.9 *
Acacia nilotica Fruit -- 349500.0 2.5 *
Sarcostemma acidum Plant -- -- *
Acacia nilotica Seed -- 66100.0 -0.2 *
Artemisia cina Flower -- -- *
Catha edulis Leaf -- -- *
Tsuga canadensis Leaf -- 15000.0 -1.2 *
Acacia nilotica Wood -- 63500.0 0.4 *
Caesalpinia pulcherrima Leaf -- 7000.0 -1.3 *
Plantago ovata Plant -- -- *
Tsuga canadensis Root Bark -- 245000.0 0.5 *
Caesalpinia pulcherrima Wood -- 3000.0 -1.0 *
Sclerocarya caffra Leaf -- 200000.0 1.1 *
Portulaca oleracea Plant -- -- *
Genista tinctoria Plant -- -- *
Paeonia lactiflora Root -- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Senecio aureus Plant -- -- *
Tamarindus indica Bark -- 70000.0 -0.6 *
Origanum majorana Plant -- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Cinnamomum aromaticum Plant -- -- *
Annona muricata Plant -- -- *
Catalpa bignonioides Bark -- 60000.0 -0.7 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Persea americana Leaf -- 47000.0 -0.8 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Zanthoxylum americanum Plant -- -- *
Spigelia marilandica Plant -- -- *
Cichorium intybus Plant -- -- *
Mitchella repens Plant -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Artemisia abrotanum Plant -- -- *
Conyza canadensis Plant -- -- *
Ocimum tenuiflorum Plant -- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Mentha pulegium Plant -- 40000.0 -0.6 *
Senna alata Leaf -- -- *
Teucrium polium Plant -- -- Rizk, A.F.M., The Phytochemistry of the Flora of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar, Kingprint, Richmond, UK, 1986.
Ginkgo biloba Leaf -- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Artocarpus heterophyllus Bark -- 33000.0 -0.9 *
Lantana camara Leaf -- -- *
Alisma plantago-aquatica Plant -- -- *
Argemone mexicana Plant -- 11000.0 -1.1 *
Datura stramonium Plant -- 70000.0 -0.2 *
Morus alba Stem -- -- *
Thuja occidentalis Branches -- 59000.0 *
Gossypium sp Stem -- 17700.0 -1.4 *
Centella asiatica Plant -- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Anacardium occidentale Bark -- 90000.0 -0.4 *
Actinidia chinensis Fruit -- 9500.0 -0.8 *
Paeonia moutan Root Bark -- -- *
Capparis spinosa Plant -- -- *
Centaurea cyanus Flower -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cuminum cyminum Fruit -- -- *
Rosa laevigata Fruit -- -- *
Smilax china Root -- -- *
Cydonia oblonga Seed -- -- *
Lindera benzoin Plant -- -- *
Liquidambar orientalis Plant -- -- *
Cnicus benedictus Plant -- 80000.0 -0.1 *
Saussurea lappa Root -- -- *
Mentha arvensis var. piperascens Plant -- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Myroxylon balsamum Plant -- 4000.0 -1.2 *
Althaea officinalis Root -- 20000.0 -1.8 *
Carum carvi Plant -- -- *
Cytisus scoparius Flower -- -- *
Terminalia catappa Bark -- 130000.0 -0.1 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cinnamomum verum Plant -- -- *
Lythrum salicaria Flower -- 137000.0 0.8 *
Dipsacus fullonum Plant -- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Pistacia vera Plant -- -- *
Plantago psyllium Plant -- -- *
Lythrum salicaria Leaf -- 120000.0 0.1 *
Lythrum salicaria Root -- 85000.0 0.3 *
Prosopis juliflora Root -- 67000.0 -0.3 *
Ceratonia siliqua Fruit -- 15000.0 -0.8 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Lythrum salicaria Stem -- 105000.0 0.6 *
Prosopis juliflora Wood -- 9000.0 -0.9 *
Malva neglecta Flower -- -- *
Lavandula angustifolia Plant -- 120000.0 0.5 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Robinia pseudoacacia Bark -- 70000.0 -0.6 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Citrus aurantium Fruit -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Viburnum opulus Fruit -- 30000.0 -0.6 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Annona reticulata Bark -- -- *
Paeonia officinalis Root -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Punica granatum Root -- 70000.0 -0.2 Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Lepidium meyenii Root -- -- *
Vitis vinifera Seed -- -- *
Acacia senegal Plant -- -- Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
Taraxacum officinale Root -- -- *
Prunus persica Fruit -- 8000.0 -0.8 *
Cocos nucifera Plant -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Prunus persica Leaf -- 8000.0 -1.3 *
Atropa bella-donna Root -- 120000.0 1.4 *
Croton eluteria Bark -- -- *
Hippophae rhamnoides Fruit -- 18000.0 -0.7 Abstract (See species file)
Dodonaea viscosa Bark -- 58000.0 -0.7 *
Dodonaea viscosa Leaf -- 59800.0 -0.6 *
Syzygium cumini Fruit -- -- Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Cuscuta europaea Root -- 60000.0 -0.5 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Juglans nigra Fruit -- 147000.0 0.5 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Sassafras albidum Root -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Guaiacum sp. Wood -- -- *
Schinus molle Bark -- 230000.0 0.8 *
Aspalathus linearis Shoot -- 44000.0 -0.8 *
Quercus rubra Bark -- 160000.0 0.2 *
Adiantum capillus-veneris Plant -- -- *
Eucalyptus citriodora Resin, Exudate, Sap -- 482000.0 1.4 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Galium odoratum Plant -- -- *
Coffea arabica Seed -- 90000.0 0.1 *
Terminalia arjuna Bark -- 158000.0 0.1 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Juniperus communis Fruit -- 50000.0 -0.4 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Psidium guajava Root -- -- *
Guarea rusbyi Bark -- -- *
Ligustrum vulgare Bark -- 70000.0 -0.6 *
Marsdenia reichenbachii Plant -- -- *
Menyanthes trifoliata Plant -- 30000.0 -0.8 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Paeonia suffruticosa Root Bark -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Coriandrum sativum Fruit -- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Hydnocarpus kurzii Seed -- -- *
Anemone pulsatilla Plant -- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Frangula purshiana Plant -- -- *
Capsella bursa-pastoris Plant -- -- *
Cimicifuga racemosa Root -- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Sanguisorba minor Plant -- -- *
Schinus terebinthifolius Bark -- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Dioscorea bulbifera Tuber -- -- *
Scutellaria churchilliana Plant -- -- *
Syzygium aromaticum Plant -- -- *
Tussilago farfara Flower -- 6000.0 -1.4 *
Warburgia ugandensis Bark -- -- *
Tussilago farfara Leaf -- 170000.0 0.7 *
Tussilago farfara Rhizome -- -- *
Viburnum prunifolium Root Bark -- 20000.0 -1.4 Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Catharanthus roseus Leaf -- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Actaea cimicifuga Rhizome -- -- *
Berberis vulgaris Fruit -- 55600.0 -0.4 Jim Duke's personal files.
Ocimum sanctum Plant -- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Acacia tortilis Bark -- -- *
Acacia tortilis Leaf -- -- *
Ailanthus altissima Leaf -- 120000.0 0.1 *
Mercurialis annua Root -- 33500.0 -1.3 *
Liquidambar styraciflua Plant -- -- *
Viola tricolor Plant -- -- *
Salvia sclarea Plant -- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Cynara cardunculus Plant -- -- *
Ficus carica Leaf -- 36000.0 -0.9 Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Bryonia alba Root -- -- *
Alnus glutinosa Bark -- 200000.0 0.5 *
Asclepias syriaca Sprout Seedling -- -- *
Fragaria spp Leaf -- -- *
Jateorhiza palmata Root -- -- *
Pinus sylvestris Bark -- 169000.0 0.2 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Rhododendron ferrugineum Leaf -- -- *
Ribes uva-crispa Fruit -- -- *
Sanguisorba officinalis Hs -- 170000.0 *
Geranium thunbergii Leaf -- 200000.0 1.1 *
Oenothera biennis Herb -- 110000.0 *
Rubus fruticosus Leaf -- -- *
Geranium thunbergii Plant -- 50000.0 -0.5 *
Haematoxylum campechianum Wood -- 100000.0 1.2 *
Acalypha indica Plant -- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Filipendula ulmaria Leaf -- -- *
Eupatorium odoratum Leaf -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Filipendula ulmaria Shoot -- 93100.0 -0.1 *
Tamarindus indica Bl -- 70000.0 *
Filipendula ulmaria Root -- 86200.0 0.3 *
Tamarindus indica Seed -- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Ceiba pentandra Bark -- 108200.0 -0.3 *
Ajuga reptans Plant -- 150000.0 1.0 *
Myrtus communis Plant -- 140000.0 0.8 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Eucalyptus cornea Plant -- 250000.0 2.4 *
Gardenia jasminoides Fruit -- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Pachira aquatica Bark -- 27000.0 -1.0 *
Prunus laurocerasus Leaf -- -- *
Cuminum cyminum Seed -- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Populus nigra Plant -- -- *
Pteridium aquilinum Plant -- -- *
Piper angustifolium Leaf -- -- *
Cinchona officinalis Bark -- -- *
Ocimum basilicum Plant -- 50000.0 -0.5 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Teucrium montanum Plant -- 22000.0 -0.9 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Acacia leucophloea Plant -- -- *
Prunus serotina Bark -- -- *
Senna occidentalis Seed -- -- *
Hamelia patens Bark -- 150000.0 0.1 *
Krameria triandra Root -- -- *
Chimaphila umbellata Plant -- 40000.0 -0.6 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Peucedanum ostruthium Root -- -- *
Solanum tuberosum Leaf -- 32000.0 -1.0 *
Swertia chirata Plant -- -- *
Cornus florida Bark -- 30000.0 -1.0 *
Mahonia aquifolium Plant -- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Ononis spinosa Plant -- 5000.0 -1.1 *
Phytolacca americana Root -- -- *
Aloysia citrodora Plant -- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Collinsonia canadensis Plant -- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Aegle marmelos Fruit -- 90000.0 -0.0 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Aegle marmelos Petiole -- 200000.0 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Mimosa pudica Root -- 100000.0 0.7 *
Annona squamosa Plant -- -- *
Punica granatum Fruit Juice -- 1700.0 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Acacia melanoxylon Plant -- -- *
Punica granatum Leaf -- 110000.0 -0.0 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Scutellaria lateriflora Plant -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Holarrhena pubescens Bark -- 11400.0 -1.1 *
Tabernanthe iboga Root -- -- *
Borago officinalis Plant -- 30000.0 -0.8 *
Juglans regia Fruit -- 122000.0 0.3 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Actaea racemosa Root -- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Phyllanthus emblica Fruit -- 280000.0 1.8 *
Armoracia rusticana Plant -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Castanea sativa Leaf -- 90000.0 -0.3 *
Ammi majus Seed -- 4500.0 -0.9 *
Azadirachta indica Stem Bark -- 60000.0 -0.4 *
Frangula alnus Bark -- -- *
Polygonum hydropiper Plant -- 35000.0 -0.7 *
Nepeta cataria Leaf -- -- *
Serenoa repens Root -- 75800.0 -0.0 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Tridax procumbens Plant -- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Cola acuminata Seed -- -- *
Serenoa repens Stem -- 54800.0 -0.5 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Verbena officinalis Plant -- -- *
Phyllanthus emblica Twig -- -- *
Zizyphus jujuba Fruit -- 100000.0 0.1 *
Albizia julibrissin Bark -- -- *
Zizyphus jujuba Leaf -- 46000.0 -0.8 *
Gaultheria procumbens Leaf -- -- *
Origanum creticum Plant -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Jatropha gossypifolia Leaf -- -- *
Quillaja saponaria Bark -- 150000.0 0.1 *
Prunus spinosa Fruit -- -- *
Veronica officinalis Plant -- -- *
Nigella sativa Seed -- -- *
Sterculia urens Bark -- -- *
Sterculia urens Gum -- 20000.0 *
Artemisia dracunculus Plant -- -- *
Gleditsia triacanthos Leaf -- -- *
Aesculus hippocastanum Flower -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Ficus carica Stem Bark -- 5000.0 -1.0 Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Pausinystalia johimbe Bark -- -- *
Apocynum cannabinum Plant -- -- *
Berberis vulgaris Plant -- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Croton lechleri Plant -- -- Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Sanguisorba officinalis Plant -- 170000.0 1.3 *
Mentha aquatica Leaf -- 74000.0 -0.4 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Teucrium chamaedrys Plant -- 50000.0 -0.5 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Gelsemium sempervirens Root -- -- *
Chrysanthemum balsamita Plant -- -- *
Peumus boldus Leaf -- -- *
Sambucus canadensis Seed -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.