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Total Plants: 400
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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Rumex hymenosepalus Plant 180000.0 350000.0 3.9 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Rhizophora mangle Bark 10000.0 520000.0 3.3 *
Ceratonia siliqua Bark 12000.0 500000.0 3.1 *
Arbutus unedo Bark -- 450000.0 2.7 *
Anogeissus latifolia Leaf 322000.0 329000.0 2.7 *
Terminalia chebula Fruit 1090.0 355000.0 2.5 *
Acacia nilotica Fruit -- 349500.0 2.5 *
Eucalyptus cornea Plant -- 250000.0 2.4 *
Areca catechu Seed 150000.0 250000.0 2.1 *
Rhus coriaria Leaf 210000.0 280000.0 2.1 Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Rumex acetosella Root 80000.0 140000.0 2.0 *
Camellia sinensis Leaf 33800.0 270000.0 1.9 *
Rhus glabra Leaf -- 270000.0 1.9 *
Phyllanthus emblica Fruit -- 280000.0 1.8 *
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Plant 60000.0 200000.0 1.7 *
Agrimonia eupatoria Shoot 30000.0 210000.0 1.7 *
Fallopia japonica Leaf 170000.0 240000.0 1.6 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Eucalyptus citriodora Resin, Exudate, Sap -- 482000.0 1.4 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Psidium guajava Bark 110000.0 300000.0 1.4 *
Punica granatum Stem Bark 100000.0 250000.0 1.4 *
Atropa bella-donna Root -- 120000.0 1.4 *
Sanguisorba officinalis Plant -- 170000.0 1.3 *
Maclura pomifera Wood 90000.0 100000.0 1.2 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Haematoxylum campechianum Wood -- 100000.0 1.2 *
Byrsonima crassifolia Bark 172500.0 282600.0 1.2 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Fallopia japonica Stem 30000.0 130000.0 1.2 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Terminalia bellirica Fruit 170000.0 214000.0 1.2 *
Simarouba amara Bark 200000.0 270000.0 1.1 *
Vaccinium myrtillus Leaf 60000.0 200000.0 1.1 *
Sclerocarya caffra Leaf -- 200000.0 1.1 *
Vaccinium vitis-idaea Leaf 60000.0 200000.0 1.1 *
Geranium thunbergii Leaf -- 200000.0 1.1 *
Coriaria myrtifolia Leaf 100000.0 200000.0 1.1 *
Mangifera indica Flower -- 150000.0 1.0 *
Melia azedarach Bark 180000.0 260000.0 1.0 *
Terminalia catappa Fruit 60000.0 200000.0 1.0 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Punica granatum Pericarp 104000.0 336000.0 1.0 *
Stachys officinalis Plant 25200.0 150000.0 1.0 *
Ajuga reptans Plant -- 150000.0 1.0 *
Punica granatum Root Bark 20000.0 280000.0 0.9 *
Myrtus communis Plant -- 140000.0 0.8 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Lythrum salicaria Flower -- 137000.0 0.8 *
Schinus molle Bark -- 230000.0 0.8 *
Mimosa pudica Root -- 100000.0 0.7 *
Tussilago farfara Leaf -- 170000.0 0.7 *
Lythrum salicaria Stem -- 105000.0 0.6 *
Arbutus unedo Leaf -- 160000.0 0.6 *
Ilex paraguariensis Leaf 40000.0 160000.0 0.6 *
Tsuga canadensis Root Bark -- 245000.0 0.5 *
Lavandula angustifolia Flower 50000.0 120000.0 0.5 *
Lavandula angustifolia Plant -- 120000.0 0.5 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Quercus robur Bark 80000.0 200000.0 0.5 *
Alnus glutinosa Bark -- 200000.0 0.5 *
Quercus alba Bark 78500.0 200000.0 0.5 *
Juglans nigra Fruit -- 147000.0 0.5 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Paullinia cupana Seed 50000.0 120000.0 0.5 *
Acacia nilotica Wood -- 63500.0 0.4 *
Prunella vulgaris Plant 45000.0 105800.0 0.3 *
Filipendula ulmaria Root -- 86200.0 0.3 *
Urtica dioica Leaf 59700.0 133000.0 0.3 Jim Duke's personal files.
Lythrum salicaria Root -- 85000.0 0.3 *
Juglans regia Fruit -- 122000.0 0.3 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Vaccinium myrtillus Fruit 50000.0 120000.0 0.2 *
Terminalia arjuna Fruit 70000.0 120000.0 0.2 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Pinus sylvestris Bark -- 169000.0 0.2 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Solanum nigrum Plant 70000.0 100000.0 0.2 *
Thymus vulgaris Plant 80000.0 100000.0 0.2 *
Phyllanthus emblica Bark 80000.0 166400.0 0.2 *
Quercus rubra Bark -- 160000.0 0.2 *
Terminalia arjuna Bark -- 158000.0 0.1 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Coffea arabica Seed -- 90000.0 0.1 *
Rubus idaeus Leaf 16900.0 120000.0 0.1 *
Lythrum salicaria Leaf -- 120000.0 0.1 *
Ailanthus altissima Leaf -- 120000.0 0.1 *
Rhododendron ponticum Leaf 50000.0 120000.0 0.1 *
Symphytum officinale Plant 80000.0 90000.0 0.1 *
Leonurus cardiaca Plant 21000.0 90000.0 0.1 *
Tsuga canadensis Bark 100000.0 150500.0 0.1 *
Anogeissus latifolia Bark 100000.0 150000.0 0.1 *
Hamelia patens Bark -- 150000.0 0.1 *
Quillaja saponaria Bark -- 150000.0 0.1 *
Zizyphus jujuba Fruit -- 100000.0 0.1 *
Pistacia lentiscus Leaf -- 113000.0 0.0 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Satureja hortensis Plant 40000.0 85000.0 0.0 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Punica granatum Leaf -- 110000.0 -0.0 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Juglans regia Leaf 90000.0 110000.0 -0.0 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Serenoa repens Root -- 75800.0 -0.0 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Aegle marmelos Fruit -- 90000.0 -0.0 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Lonicera japonica Plant -- 80000.0 -0.1 *
Salvia officinalis Plant 20000.0 80000.0 -0.1 *
Cnicus benedictus Plant -- 80000.0 -0.1 *
Hyssopus officinalis Plant 50000.0 80000.0 -0.1 Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jan-87.
Filipendula ulmaria Shoot -- 93100.0 -0.1 *
Terminalia catappa Bark -- 130000.0 -0.1 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Thymus serpyllum Plant 50000.0 75000.0 -0.1 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Thymus vulgaris Leaf 16800.0 100000.0 -0.1 *
Ligustrum vulgare Leaf 60000.0 100000.0 -0.1 *
Psidium guajava Leaf 90000.0 100000.0 -0.1 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Acacia nilotica Seed -- 66100.0 -0.2 *
Salix alba Bark 20160.0 120000.0 -0.2 *
Castanea sativa Bark 40000.0 120000.0 -0.2 *
Datura stramonium Plant -- 70000.0 -0.2 *
Marrubium vulgare Plant 65000.0 70000.0 -0.2 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Glechoma hederacea Plant 30000.0 70000.0 -0.2 *
Punica granatum Root -- 70000.0 -0.2 Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Teucrium scorodonia Leaf 80000.0 90000.0 -0.3 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Castanea sativa Leaf -- 90000.0 -0.3 *
Albizia lebbeck Bark 70000.0 110000.0 -0.3 Wealth of India.
Ceiba pentandra Bark -- 108200.0 -0.3 *
Manilkara zapota Fruit 31600.0 64500.0 -0.3 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Prosopis juliflora Root -- 67000.0 -0.3 *
Melicoccus bijugatas Fruit 18800.0 60225.0 -0.3 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Pinus kesiya Bark 70000.0 100000.0 -0.4 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Sclerocarya caffra Bark 35000.0 100000.0 -0.4 *
Pinus insularis Bark 70000.0 100000.0 -0.4 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Agrimonia eupatoria Leaf 50000.0 80000.0 -0.4 *
Berberis vulgaris Fruit -- 55600.0 -0.4 Jim Duke's personal files.
Plantago major Plant 40000.0 57000.0 -0.4 *
Artemisia absinthium Leaf 40000.0 77000.0 -0.4 *
Azadirachta indica Stem Bark -- 60000.0 -0.4 *
Juniperus communis Fruit -- 50000.0 -0.4 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Mentha aquatica Leaf -- 74000.0 -0.4 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Anacardium occidentale Bark -- 90000.0 -0.4 *
Juniperus virginiana Bark 21000.0 86000.0 -0.5 *
Geranium thunbergii Plant -- 50000.0 -0.5 *
Ocimum basilicum Plant -- 50000.0 -0.5 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Teucrium chamaedrys Plant -- 50000.0 -0.5 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Leaf 6960.0 70000.0 -0.5 *
Prosopis juliflora Bark 6000.0 84000.0 -0.5 *
Serenoa repens Stem -- 54800.0 -0.5 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cuscuta europaea Root -- 60000.0 -0.5 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Rumex crispus Root 30000.0 60000.0 -0.5 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Calendula officinalis Leaf -- 64500.0 -0.6 *
Juglans regia Bark 53000.0 75100.0 -0.6 *
Dodonaea viscosa Leaf -- 59800.0 -0.6 *
Tamarindus indica Bark -- 70000.0 -0.6 *
Robinia pseudoacacia Bark -- 70000.0 -0.6 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Ligustrum vulgare Bark -- 70000.0 -0.6 *
Prunus cerasus Bark 50000.0 70000.0 -0.6 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Terminalia bellirica Bark 14000.0 70000.0 -0.6 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Viburnum opulus Fruit -- 30000.0 -0.6 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Lagochilus inebrians Plant 20000.0 40000.0 -0.6 *
Achillea millefolium Plant 28000.0 40000.0 -0.6 *
Mentha pulegium Plant -- 40000.0 -0.6 *
Chimaphila umbellata Plant -- 40000.0 -0.6 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Prunus domestica Bark -- 68000.0 -0.6 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Castanea sativa Seed 20000.0 28000.0 -0.6 *
Acacia nilotica Resin, Exudate, Sap 170000.0 200000.0 -0.7 *
Ulmus rubra Bark 30000.0 65000.0 -0.7 *
Aleurites moluccana Bark 40000.0 60000.0 -0.7 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Catalpa bignonioides Bark -- 60000.0 -0.7 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Scutellaria galericulata Plant 28600.0 35000.0 -0.7 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Polygonum hydropiper Plant -- 35000.0 -0.7 *
Rosa canina Fruit 3740.0 20000.0 -0.7 *
Dodonaea viscosa Bark -- 58000.0 -0.7 *
Phoenix dactylifera Fruit 200.0 18000.0 -0.7 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Hippophae rhamnoides Fruit -- 18000.0 -0.7 Abstract (See species file)
Hippophae rhamnoides Shoot 40000.0 50000.0 -0.7 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Jatropha curcas Resin, Exudate, Sap 116000.0 187000.0 -0.8 *
Ceratonia siliqua Fruit -- 15000.0 -0.8 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Agrimonia eupatoria Bark -- 52800.0 -0.8 Wealth of India.
Persea americana Leaf -- 47000.0 -0.8 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Menyanthes trifoliata Plant -- 30000.0 -0.8 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Borago officinalis Plant -- 30000.0 -0.8 *
Zizyphus jujuba Leaf -- 46000.0 -0.8 *
Actinidia chinensis Fruit -- 9500.0 -0.8 *
Aspalathus linearis Shoot -- 44000.0 -0.8 *
Prunus persica Fruit -- 8000.0 -0.8 *
Rubus idaeus Fruit -- 6200.0 -0.9 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Turnera diffusa Leaf 8400.0 40000.0 -0.9 *
Prosopis juliflora Wood -- 9000.0 -0.9 *
Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco Bark 30000.0 40000.0 -0.9 *
Solanum melongena Fruit -- 2000.0 -0.9 *
Solanum sessiliflorum Fruit 142.0 1420.0 -0.9 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Teucrium montanum Plant -- 22000.0 -0.9 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Prunus armeniaca Fruit 600.0 1000.0 -0.9 *
Ficus carica Leaf -- 36000.0 -0.9 Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Ammi majus Seed -- 4500.0 -0.9 *
Artocarpus heterophyllus Bark -- 33000.0 -0.9 *
Ficus carica Stem Bark -- 5000.0 -1.0 Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Cedrus deodora Leaf -- 32000.0 -1.0 *
Solanum tuberosum Leaf -- 32000.0 -1.0 *
Cornus florida Bark -- 30000.0 -1.0 *
Pogostemon cablin Plant -- 17000.0 -1.0 *
Mangifera indica Seed -- 1100.0 -1.0 *
Sambucus nigra Leaf 4400.0 30000.0 -1.0 *
Acacia nilotica Bark -- 27100.0 -1.0 *
Pachira aquatica Bark -- 27000.0 -1.0 *
Juglans nigra Pericarp 33600.0 280000.0 -1.0 *
Araucaria bidwillii Wood -- 3000.0 -1.0 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Caesalpinia pulcherrima Wood -- 3000.0 -1.0 *
Marrubium vulgare Flower 26000.0 29000.0 -1.0 *
Argemone mexicana Plant -- 11000.0 -1.1 *
Phyllanthus emblica Leaf 18000.0 22000.0 -1.1 *
Piper betel Leaf 10000.0 20500.0 -1.1 *
Holarrhena pubescens Bark -- 11400.0 -1.1 *
Ononis spinosa Plant -- 5000.0 -1.1 *
Myroxylon balsamum Plant -- 4000.0 -1.2 *
Tsuga canadensis Leaf -- 15000.0 -1.2 *
Eucalyptus citriodora Leaf -- 11600.0 -1.2 *
Prunus persica Leaf -- 8000.0 -1.3 *
Araucaria bidwillii Leaf -- 7000.0 -1.3 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Caesalpinia pulcherrima Leaf -- 7000.0 -1.3 *
Mercurialis annua Root -- 33500.0 -1.3 *
Gossypium sp Stem -- 17700.0 -1.4 *
Tussilago farfara Flower -- 6000.0 -1.4 *
Viburnum prunifolium Root Bark -- 20000.0 -1.4 Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Althaea officinalis Root -- 20000.0 -1.8 *
Panax quinquefolius Plant -- -- *
Piscidia piscipula Plant -- -- *
Eriobotrya japonica Leaf -- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Chamaemelum nobile Plant -- -- *
Schisandra chinensis Fruit -- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Ocimum basilicum Tissue Culture -- -- *
Santalum album Wood -- -- *
Teucrium marum Plant -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Quercus infectoria Plant -- -- *
Chamaesyce hypericifolia Plant -- -- *
Alpinia officinarum Rhizome -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Acorus calamus Rhizome -- 15000.0 *
Euphrasia officinalis Shoot -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Acacia catechu Plant -- -- *
Hedeoma pulegioides Plant -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Buxus sempervirens Leaf -- -- *
Iris x germanica Rhizome -- -- *
Illicium verum Fruit -- -- *
Euonymus atropurpureus Root -- -- *
Lycopus virginicus Plant -- -- *
Eriodictyon californicum Plant -- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Stillingia sylvatica Plant -- -- *
Tilia sp. Flower -- -- *
Yucca baccata Root -- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Matricaria recutita Plant -- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Mentha x piperita Plant -- -- *
Acorus calamus Plant -- -- *
Santolina chamaecyparissus Root -- -- *
Genipa americana Fruit -- -- *
Ballota nigra Plant -- -- *
Cinnamomum aromaticum Bark -- -- Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp.
Rosmarinus officinalis Plant -- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Ephedra nevadensis Plant -- -- *
Juglans cinerea Bark -- -- *
Anaphalis margaritacea Plant -- -- *
Iris versicolor Rhizome -- -- *
Symplocarpus foetidus Plant -- -- *
Vinca minor Plant -- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Vanilla planifolia Fruit -- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Gentiana lutea Plant -- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Aesculus hippocastanum Wood -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Sarcostemma acidum Plant -- -- *
Artemisia cina Flower -- -- *
Catha edulis Leaf -- -- *
Plantago ovata Plant -- -- *
Portulaca oleracea Plant -- -- *
Genista tinctoria Plant -- -- *
Paeonia lactiflora Root -- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Senecio aureus Plant -- -- *
Origanum majorana Plant -- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Cinnamomum aromaticum Plant -- -- *
Annona muricata Plant -- -- *
Zanthoxylum americanum Plant -- -- *
Spigelia marilandica Plant -- -- *
Cichorium intybus Plant -- -- *
Mitchella repens Plant -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Artemisia abrotanum Plant -- -- *
Conyza canadensis Plant -- -- *
Ocimum tenuiflorum Plant -- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Senna alata Leaf -- -- *
Teucrium polium Plant -- -- Rizk, A.F.M., The Phytochemistry of the Flora of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar, Kingprint, Richmond, UK, 1986.
Ginkgo biloba Leaf -- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Lantana camara Leaf -- -- *
Alisma plantago-aquatica Plant -- -- *
Morus alba Stem -- -- *
Thuja occidentalis Branches -- 59000.0 *
Centella asiatica Plant -- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Paeonia moutan Root Bark -- -- *
Capparis spinosa Plant -- -- *
Centaurea cyanus Flower -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cuminum cyminum Fruit -- -- *
Rosa laevigata Fruit -- -- *
Smilax china Root -- -- *
Cydonia oblonga Seed -- -- *
Lindera benzoin Plant -- -- *
Liquidambar orientalis Plant -- -- *
Saussurea lappa Root -- -- *
Mentha arvensis var. piperascens Plant -- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Carum carvi Plant -- -- *
Cytisus scoparius Flower -- -- *
Cinnamomum verum Plant -- -- *
Dipsacus fullonum Plant -- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Pistacia vera Plant -- -- *
Plantago psyllium Plant -- -- *
Malva neglecta Flower -- -- *
Citrus aurantium Fruit -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Annona reticulata Bark -- -- *
Paeonia officinalis Root -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Lepidium meyenii Root -- -- *
Vitis vinifera Seed -- -- *
Acacia senegal Plant -- -- Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
Taraxacum officinale Root -- -- *
Cocos nucifera Plant -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Croton eluteria Bark -- -- *
Syzygium cumini Fruit -- -- Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Sassafras albidum Root -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Guaiacum sp. Wood -- -- *
Adiantum capillus-veneris Plant -- -- *
Galium odoratum Plant -- -- *
Psidium guajava Root -- -- *
Guarea rusbyi Bark -- -- *
Marsdenia reichenbachii Plant -- -- *
Paeonia suffruticosa Root Bark -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Coriandrum sativum Fruit -- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Hydnocarpus kurzii Seed -- -- *
Anemone pulsatilla Plant -- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Frangula purshiana Plant -- -- *
Capsella bursa-pastoris Plant -- -- *
Cimicifuga racemosa Root -- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Sanguisorba minor Plant -- -- *
Schinus terebinthifolius Bark -- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Dioscorea bulbifera Tuber -- -- *
Scutellaria churchilliana Plant -- -- *
Syzygium aromaticum Plant -- -- *
Warburgia ugandensis Bark -- -- *
Medicago sativa Hay 27000.0 28000.0 *
Tussilago farfara Rhizome -- -- *
Catharanthus roseus Leaf -- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Actaea cimicifuga Rhizome -- -- *
Ocimum sanctum Plant -- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Acacia tortilis Bark -- -- *
Acacia tortilis Leaf -- -- *
Liquidambar styraciflua Plant -- -- *
Viola tricolor Plant -- -- *
Salvia sclarea Plant -- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Cynara cardunculus Plant -- -- *
Bryonia alba Root -- -- *
Asclepias syriaca Sprout Seedling -- -- *
Fragaria spp Leaf -- -- *
Jateorhiza palmata Root -- -- *
Rhododendron ferrugineum Leaf -- -- *
Ribes uva-crispa Fruit -- -- *
Sanguisorba officinalis Hs -- 170000.0 *
Oenothera biennis Herb -- 110000.0 *
Rubus fruticosus Leaf -- -- *
Acalypha indica Plant -- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Filipendula ulmaria Leaf -- -- *
Eupatorium odoratum Leaf -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Tamarindus indica Bl -- 70000.0 *
Tamarindus indica Seed -- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Gardenia jasminoides Fruit -- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Prunus laurocerasus Leaf -- -- *
Cuminum cyminum Seed -- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Populus nigra Plant -- -- *
Pteridium aquilinum Plant -- -- *
Piper angustifolium Leaf -- -- *
Cinchona officinalis Bark -- -- *
Quercus suber Cork 20000.0 65000.0 *
Acacia leucophloea Plant -- -- *
Prunus serotina Bark -- -- *
Senna occidentalis Seed -- -- *
Krameria triandra Root -- -- *
Peucedanum ostruthium Root -- -- *
Swertia chirata Plant -- -- *
Mahonia aquifolium Plant -- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Phytolacca americana Root -- -- *
Aloysia citrodora Plant -- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Collinsonia canadensis Plant -- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Aegle marmelos Petiole -- 200000.0 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Annona squamosa Plant -- -- *
Punica granatum Fruit Juice -- 1700.0 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Acacia melanoxylon Plant -- -- *
Scutellaria lateriflora Plant -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Tabernanthe iboga Root -- -- *
Actaea racemosa Root -- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Armoracia rusticana Plant -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Frangula alnus Bark -- -- *
Nepeta cataria Leaf -- -- *
Tridax procumbens Plant -- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Cola acuminata Seed -- -- *
Verbena officinalis Plant -- -- *
Phyllanthus emblica Twig -- -- *
Albizia julibrissin Bark -- -- *
Gaultheria procumbens Leaf -- -- *
Origanum creticum Plant -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Jatropha gossypifolia Leaf -- -- *
Prunus spinosa Fruit -- -- *
Veronica officinalis Plant -- -- *
Nigella sativa Seed -- -- *
Sterculia urens Bark -- -- *
Sterculia urens Gum -- 20000.0 *
Artemisia dracunculus Plant -- -- *
Gleditsia triacanthos Leaf -- -- *
Aesculus hippocastanum Flower -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Pausinystalia johimbe Bark -- -- *
Apocynum cannabinum Plant -- -- *
Berberis vulgaris Plant -- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Croton lechleri Plant -- -- Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Gelsemium sempervirens Root -- -- *
Chrysanthemum balsamita Plant -- -- *
Peumus boldus Leaf -- -- *
Sambucus canadensis Seed -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.