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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Acacia senegal Plant -- -- Pakistan Encyclopedia Planta Medica. 1986.
Acacia nilotica Resin, Exudate, Sap 170000.0 200000.0 -0.7 *
Acacia melanoxylon Plant -- -- *
Acacia tortilis Leaf -- -- *
Acacia nilotica Wood -- 63500.0 0.4 *
Acacia nilotica Fruit -- 349500.0 2.5 *
Acacia leucophloea Plant -- -- *
Acacia tortilis Bark -- -- *
Acacia nilotica Seed -- 66100.0 -0.2 *
Acacia nilotica Bark -- 27100.0 -1.0 *
Acacia catechu Plant -- -- *
Acalypha indica Plant -- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Achillea millefolium Plant 28000.0 40000.0 -0.6 *
Acorus calamus Plant -- -- *
Acorus calamus Rhizome -- 15000.0 *
Actaea cimicifuga Rhizome -- -- *
Actaea racemosa Root -- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Actinidia chinensis Fruit -- 9500.0 -0.8 *
Adiantum capillus-veneris Plant -- -- *
Aegle marmelos Fruit -- 90000.0 -0.0 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Aegle marmelos Petiole -- 200000.0 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Aesculus hippocastanum Flower -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Aesculus hippocastanum Wood -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Agrimonia eupatoria Leaf 50000.0 80000.0 -0.4 *
Agrimonia eupatoria Shoot 30000.0 210000.0 1.7 *
Agrimonia eupatoria Bark -- 52800.0 -0.8 Wealth of India.
Ailanthus altissima Leaf -- 120000.0 0.1 *
Ajuga reptans Plant -- 150000.0 1.0 *
Albizia julibrissin Bark -- -- *
Albizia lebbeck Bark 70000.0 110000.0 -0.3 Wealth of India.
Aleurites moluccana Bark 40000.0 60000.0 -0.7 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Alisma plantago-aquatica Plant -- -- *
Alnus glutinosa Bark -- 200000.0 0.5 *
Aloysia citrodora Plant -- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Alpinia officinarum Rhizome -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Althaea officinalis Root -- 20000.0 -1.8 *
Ammi majus Seed -- 4500.0 -0.9 *
Anacardium occidentale Bark -- 90000.0 -0.4 *
Anaphalis margaritacea Plant -- -- *
Anemone pulsatilla Plant -- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Annona reticulata Bark -- -- *
Annona muricata Plant -- -- *
Annona squamosa Plant -- -- *
Anogeissus latifolia Leaf 322000.0 329000.0 2.7 *
Anogeissus latifolia Bark 100000.0 150000.0 0.1 *
Apocynum cannabinum Plant -- -- *
Araucaria bidwillii Wood -- 3000.0 -1.0 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Araucaria bidwillii Leaf -- 7000.0 -1.3 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Arbutus unedo Leaf -- 160000.0 0.6 *
Arbutus unedo Bark -- 450000.0 2.7 *
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Plant 60000.0 200000.0 1.7 *
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Leaf 6960.0 70000.0 -0.5 *
Areca catechu Seed 150000.0 250000.0 2.1 *
Argemone mexicana Plant -- 11000.0 -1.1 *
Armoracia rusticana Plant -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Artemisia cina Flower -- -- *
Artemisia absinthium Leaf 40000.0 77000.0 -0.4 *
Artemisia dracunculus Plant -- -- *
Artemisia abrotanum Plant -- -- *
Artocarpus heterophyllus Bark -- 33000.0 -0.9 *
Asclepias syriaca Sprout Seedling -- -- *
Aspalathus linearis Shoot -- 44000.0 -0.8 *
Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco Bark 30000.0 40000.0 -0.9 *
Atropa bella-donna Root -- 120000.0 1.4 *
Azadirachta indica Stem Bark -- 60000.0 -0.4 *
Ballota nigra Plant -- -- *
Berberis vulgaris Fruit -- 55600.0 -0.4 Jim Duke's personal files.
Berberis vulgaris Plant -- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Borago officinalis Plant -- 30000.0 -0.8 *
Bryonia alba Root -- -- *
Buxus sempervirens Leaf -- -- *
Byrsonima crassifolia Bark 172500.0 282600.0 1.2 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Caesalpinia pulcherrima Wood -- 3000.0 -1.0 *
Caesalpinia pulcherrima Leaf -- 7000.0 -1.3 *
Calendula officinalis Leaf -- 64500.0 -0.6 *
Camellia sinensis Leaf 33800.0 270000.0 1.9 *
Capparis spinosa Plant -- -- *
Capsella bursa-pastoris Plant -- -- *
Carum carvi Plant -- -- *
Castanea sativa Leaf -- 90000.0 -0.3 *
Castanea sativa Bark 40000.0 120000.0 -0.2 *
Castanea sativa Seed 20000.0 28000.0 -0.6 *
Catalpa bignonioides Bark -- 60000.0 -0.7 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Catha edulis Leaf -- -- *
Catharanthus roseus Leaf -- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Cedrus deodora Leaf -- 32000.0 -1.0 *
Ceiba pentandra Bark -- 108200.0 -0.3 *
Centaurea cyanus Flower -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Centella asiatica Plant -- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Ceratonia siliqua Bark 12000.0 500000.0 3.1 *
Ceratonia siliqua Fruit -- 15000.0 -0.8 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Chamaemelum nobile Plant -- -- *
Chamaesyce hypericifolia Plant -- -- *
Chimaphila umbellata Plant -- 40000.0 -0.6 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Chrysanthemum balsamita Plant -- -- *
Cichorium intybus Plant -- -- *
Cimicifuga racemosa Root -- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Cinchona officinalis Bark -- -- *
Cinnamomum aromaticum Bark -- -- Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp.
Cinnamomum verum Plant -- -- *
Cinnamomum aromaticum Plant -- -- *
Citrus aurantium Fruit -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cnicus benedictus Plant -- 80000.0 -0.1 *
Cocos nucifera Plant -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Coffea arabica Seed -- 90000.0 0.1 *
Cola acuminata Seed -- -- *
Collinsonia canadensis Plant -- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Conyza canadensis Plant -- -- *
Coriandrum sativum Fruit -- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Coriaria myrtifolia Leaf 100000.0 200000.0 1.1 *
Cornus florida Bark -- 30000.0 -1.0 *
Croton eluteria Bark -- -- *
Croton lechleri Plant -- -- Taylor, Leslie. 2005. The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. SquareOne Publisher, Garden City Park, NY. 519 pp.
Cuminum cyminum Fruit -- -- *
Cuminum cyminum Seed -- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Cuscuta europaea Root -- 60000.0 -0.5 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Cydonia oblonga Seed -- -- *
Cynara cardunculus Plant -- -- *
Cytisus scoparius Flower -- -- *
Datura stramonium Plant -- 70000.0 -0.2 *
Dioscorea bulbifera Tuber -- -- *
Dipsacus fullonum Plant -- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Dodonaea viscosa Bark -- 58000.0 -0.7 *
Dodonaea viscosa Leaf -- 59800.0 -0.6 *
Ephedra nevadensis Plant -- -- *
Eriobotrya japonica Leaf -- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Eriodictyon californicum Plant -- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Eucalyptus citriodora Leaf -- 11600.0 -1.2 *
Eucalyptus citriodora Resin, Exudate, Sap -- 482000.0 1.4 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Eucalyptus cornea Plant -- 250000.0 2.4 *
Euonymus atropurpureus Root -- -- *
Eupatorium odoratum Leaf -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Euphrasia officinalis Shoot -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Fallopia japonica Leaf 170000.0 240000.0 1.6 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Fallopia japonica Stem 30000.0 130000.0 1.2 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Ficus carica Stem Bark -- 5000.0 -1.0 Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Ficus carica Leaf -- 36000.0 -0.9 Blaschek, W., Hansel, R., Keller, K., Reichling, J., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1998. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Auflage Band 2 (A-K), 909 pp., (L-Z), 858 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Filipendula ulmaria Leaf -- -- *
Filipendula ulmaria Root -- 86200.0 0.3 *
Filipendula ulmaria Shoot -- 93100.0 -0.1 *
Fragaria spp Leaf -- -- *
Frangula alnus Bark -- -- *
Frangula purshiana Plant -- -- *
Galium odoratum Plant -- -- *
Gardenia jasminoides Fruit -- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Gaultheria procumbens Leaf -- -- *
Gelsemium sempervirens Root -- -- *
Genipa americana Fruit -- -- *
Genista tinctoria Plant -- -- *
Gentiana lutea Plant -- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Geranium thunbergii Leaf -- 200000.0 1.1 *
Geranium thunbergii Plant -- 50000.0 -0.5 *
Ginkgo biloba Leaf -- -- Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Glechoma hederacea Plant 30000.0 70000.0 -0.2 *
Gleditsia triacanthos Leaf -- -- *
Gossypium sp Stem -- 17700.0 -1.4 *
Guaiacum sp. Wood -- -- *
Guarea rusbyi Bark -- -- *
Haematoxylum campechianum Wood -- 100000.0 1.2 *
Hamelia patens Bark -- 150000.0 0.1 *
Hedeoma pulegioides Plant -- -- Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Hippophae rhamnoides Fruit -- 18000.0 -0.7 Abstract (See species file)
Hippophae rhamnoides Shoot 40000.0 50000.0 -0.7 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Holarrhena pubescens Bark -- 11400.0 -1.1 *
Hydnocarpus kurzii Seed -- -- *
Hyssopus officinalis Plant 50000.0 80000.0 -0.1 Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Jan-87.
Ilex paraguariensis Leaf 40000.0 160000.0 0.6 *
Illicium verum Fruit -- -- *
Iris x germanica Rhizome -- -- *
Iris versicolor Rhizome -- -- *
Jateorhiza palmata Root -- -- *
Jatropha curcas Resin, Exudate, Sap 116000.0 187000.0 -0.8 *
Jatropha gossypifolia Leaf -- -- *
Juglans regia Leaf 90000.0 110000.0 -0.0 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Juglans nigra Fruit -- 147000.0 0.5 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Juglans regia Fruit -- 122000.0 0.3 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Juglans cinerea Bark -- -- *
Juglans nigra Pericarp 33600.0 280000.0 -1.0 *
Juglans regia Bark 53000.0 75100.0 -0.6 *
Juniperus virginiana Bark 21000.0 86000.0 -0.5 *
Juniperus communis Fruit -- 50000.0 -0.4 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Krameria triandra Root -- -- *
Lagochilus inebrians Plant 20000.0 40000.0 -0.6 *
Lantana camara Leaf -- -- *
Lavandula angustifolia Plant -- 120000.0 0.5 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Lavandula angustifolia Flower 50000.0 120000.0 0.5 *
Leonurus cardiaca Plant 21000.0 90000.0 0.1 *
Lepidium meyenii Root -- -- *
Ligustrum vulgare Leaf 60000.0 100000.0 -0.1 *
Ligustrum vulgare Bark -- 70000.0 -0.6 *
Lindera benzoin Plant -- -- *
Liquidambar styraciflua Plant -- -- *
Liquidambar orientalis Plant -- -- *
Lonicera japonica Plant -- 80000.0 -0.1 *
Lycopus virginicus Plant -- -- *
Lythrum salicaria Leaf -- 120000.0 0.1 *
Lythrum salicaria Stem -- 105000.0 0.6 *
Lythrum salicaria Flower -- 137000.0 0.8 *
Lythrum salicaria Root -- 85000.0 0.3 *
Maclura pomifera Wood 90000.0 100000.0 1.2 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Mahonia aquifolium Plant -- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Malva neglecta Flower -- -- *
Mangifera indica Seed -- 1100.0 -1.0 *
Mangifera indica Flower -- 150000.0 1.0 *
Manilkara zapota Fruit 31600.0 64500.0 -0.3 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Marrubium vulgare Flower 26000.0 29000.0 -1.0 *
Marrubium vulgare Plant 65000.0 70000.0 -0.2 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Marsdenia reichenbachii Plant -- -- *
Matricaria recutita Plant -- -- Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.
Medicago sativa Hay 27000.0 28000.0 *
Melia azedarach Bark 180000.0 260000.0 1.0 *
Melicoccus bijugatas Fruit 18800.0 60225.0 -0.3 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Mentha aquatica Leaf -- 74000.0 -0.4 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Mentha pulegium Plant -- 40000.0 -0.6 *
Mentha arvensis var. piperascens Plant -- -- Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Mentha x piperita Plant -- -- *
Menyanthes trifoliata Plant -- 30000.0 -0.8 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Mercurialis annua Root -- 33500.0 -1.3 *
Mimosa pudica Root -- 100000.0 0.7 *
Mitchella repens Plant -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Morus alba Stem -- -- *
Myroxylon balsamum Plant -- 4000.0 -1.2 *
Myrtus communis Plant -- 140000.0 0.8 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Nepeta cataria Leaf -- -- *
Nigella sativa Seed -- -- *
Ocimum sanctum Plant -- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Ocimum basilicum Tissue Culture -- -- *
Ocimum tenuiflorum Plant -- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Ocimum basilicum Plant -- 50000.0 -0.5 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Oenothera biennis Herb -- 110000.0 *
Ononis spinosa Plant -- 5000.0 -1.1 *
Origanum majorana Plant -- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Origanum creticum Plant -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Pachira aquatica Bark -- 27000.0 -1.0 *
Paeonia moutan Root Bark -- -- *
Paeonia suffruticosa Root Bark -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Paeonia lactiflora Root -- -- Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)
Paeonia officinalis Root -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Panax quinquefolius Plant -- -- *
Paullinia cupana Seed 50000.0 120000.0 0.5 *
Pausinystalia johimbe Bark -- -- *
Persea americana Leaf -- 47000.0 -0.8 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Peucedanum ostruthium Root -- -- *
Peumus boldus Leaf -- -- *
Phoenix dactylifera Fruit 200.0 18000.0 -0.7 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Phyllanthus emblica Leaf 18000.0 22000.0 -1.1 *
Phyllanthus emblica Twig -- -- *
Phyllanthus emblica Fruit -- 280000.0 1.8 *
Phyllanthus emblica Bark 80000.0 166400.0 0.2 *
Phytolacca americana Root -- -- *
Pinus insularis Bark 70000.0 100000.0 -0.4 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Pinus sylvestris Bark -- 169000.0 0.2 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Pinus kesiya Bark 70000.0 100000.0 -0.4 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Piper angustifolium Leaf -- -- *
Piper betel Leaf 10000.0 20500.0 -1.1 *
Piscidia piscipula Plant -- -- *
Pistacia lentiscus Leaf -- 113000.0 0.0 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Pistacia vera Plant -- -- *
Plantago ovata Plant -- -- *
Plantago major Plant 40000.0 57000.0 -0.4 *
Plantago psyllium Plant -- -- *
Pogostemon cablin Plant -- 17000.0 -1.0 *
Polygonum hydropiper Plant -- 35000.0 -0.7 *
Populus nigra Plant -- -- *
Portulaca oleracea Plant -- -- *
Prosopis juliflora Root -- 67000.0 -0.3 *
Prosopis juliflora Bark 6000.0 84000.0 -0.5 *
Prosopis juliflora Wood -- 9000.0 -0.9 *
Prunella vulgaris Plant 45000.0 105800.0 0.3 *
Prunus armeniaca Fruit 600.0 1000.0 -0.9 *
Prunus persica Leaf -- 8000.0 -1.3 *
Prunus domestica Bark -- 68000.0 -0.6 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Prunus spinosa Fruit -- -- *
Prunus persica Fruit -- 8000.0 -0.8 *
Prunus cerasus Bark 50000.0 70000.0 -0.6 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Prunus serotina Bark -- -- *
Prunus laurocerasus Leaf -- -- *
Psidium guajava Bark 110000.0 300000.0 1.4 *
Psidium guajava Root -- -- *
Psidium guajava Leaf 90000.0 100000.0 -0.1 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Pteridium aquilinum Plant -- -- *
Punica granatum Root -- 70000.0 -0.2 Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Punica granatum Root Bark 20000.0 280000.0 0.9 *
Punica granatum Fruit Juice -- 1700.0 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Punica granatum Pericarp 104000.0 336000.0 1.0 *
Punica granatum Stem Bark 100000.0 250000.0 1.4 *
Punica granatum Leaf -- 110000.0 -0.0 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Quercus suber Cork 20000.0 65000.0 *
Quercus infectoria Plant -- -- *
Quercus rubra Bark -- 160000.0 0.2 *
Quercus alba Bark 78500.0 200000.0 0.5 *
Quercus robur Bark 80000.0 200000.0 0.5 *
Quillaja saponaria Bark -- 150000.0 0.1 *
Rhizophora mangle Bark 10000.0 520000.0 3.3 *
Rhododendron ponticum Leaf 50000.0 120000.0 0.1 *
Rhododendron ferrugineum Leaf -- -- *
Rhus glabra Leaf -- 270000.0 1.9 *
Rhus coriaria Leaf 210000.0 280000.0 2.1 Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Ribes uva-crispa Fruit -- -- *
Robinia pseudoacacia Bark -- 70000.0 -0.6 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Rosa canina Fruit 3740.0 20000.0 -0.7 *
Rosa laevigata Fruit -- -- *
Rosmarinus officinalis Plant -- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Rubus fruticosus Leaf -- -- *
Rubus idaeus Leaf 16900.0 120000.0 0.1 *
Rubus idaeus Fruit -- 6200.0 -0.9 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Rumex acetosella Root 80000.0 140000.0 2.0 *
Rumex hymenosepalus Plant 180000.0 350000.0 3.9 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Rumex crispus Root 30000.0 60000.0 -0.5 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Salix alba Bark 20160.0 120000.0 -0.2 *
Salvia sclarea Plant -- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Salvia officinalis Plant 20000.0 80000.0 -0.1 *
Sambucus canadensis Seed -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Sambucus nigra Leaf 4400.0 30000.0 -1.0 *
Sanguisorba officinalis Hs -- 170000.0 *
Sanguisorba officinalis Plant -- 170000.0 1.3 *
Sanguisorba minor Plant -- -- *
Santalum album Wood -- -- *
Santolina chamaecyparissus Root -- -- *
Sarcostemma acidum Plant -- -- *
Sassafras albidum Root -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Satureja hortensis Plant 40000.0 85000.0 0.0 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Saussurea lappa Root -- -- *
Schinus terebinthifolius Bark -- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Schinus molle Bark -- 230000.0 0.8 *
Schisandra chinensis Fruit -- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Sclerocarya caffra Leaf -- 200000.0 1.1 *
Sclerocarya caffra Bark 35000.0 100000.0 -0.4 *
Scutellaria churchilliana Plant -- -- *
Scutellaria lateriflora Plant -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Scutellaria galericulata Plant 28600.0 35000.0 -0.7 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Senecio aureus Plant -- -- *
Senna occidentalis Seed -- -- *
Senna alata Leaf -- -- *
Serenoa repens Root -- 75800.0 -0.0 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Serenoa repens Stem -- 54800.0 -0.5 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Simarouba amara Bark 200000.0 270000.0 1.1 *
Smilax china Root -- -- *
Solanum tuberosum Leaf -- 32000.0 -1.0 *
Solanum sessiliflorum Fruit 142.0 1420.0 -0.9 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Solanum nigrum Plant 70000.0 100000.0 0.2 *
Solanum melongena Fruit -- 2000.0 -0.9 *
Spigelia marilandica Plant -- -- *
Stachys officinalis Plant 25200.0 150000.0 1.0 *
Sterculia urens Bark -- -- *
Sterculia urens Gum -- 20000.0 *
Stillingia sylvatica Plant -- -- *
Swertia chirata Plant -- -- *
Symphytum officinale Plant 80000.0 90000.0 0.1 *
Symplocarpus foetidus Plant -- -- *
Syzygium aromaticum Plant -- -- *
Syzygium cumini Fruit -- -- Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Tabernanthe iboga Root -- -- *
Tamarindus indica Seed -- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Tamarindus indica Bl -- 70000.0 *
Tamarindus indica Bark -- 70000.0 -0.6 *
Taraxacum officinale Root -- -- *
Terminalia catappa Fruit 60000.0 200000.0 1.0 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Terminalia chebula Fruit 1090.0 355000.0 2.5 *
Terminalia arjuna Fruit 70000.0 120000.0 0.2 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Terminalia catappa Bark -- 130000.0 -0.1 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Terminalia bellirica Fruit 170000.0 214000.0 1.2 *
Terminalia arjuna Bark -- 158000.0 0.1 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Terminalia bellirica Bark 14000.0 70000.0 -0.6 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Teucrium scorodonia Leaf 80000.0 90000.0 -0.3 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Teucrium polium Plant -- -- Rizk, A.F.M., The Phytochemistry of the Flora of Qatar, Scientific and Applied Research Centre, University of Qatar, Kingprint, Richmond, UK, 1986.
Teucrium marum Plant -- -- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Teucrium montanum Plant -- 22000.0 -0.9 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Teucrium chamaedrys Plant -- 50000.0 -0.5 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Thuja occidentalis Branches -- 59000.0 *
Thymus vulgaris Plant 80000.0 100000.0 0.2 *
Thymus serpyllum Plant 50000.0 75000.0 -0.1 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Thymus vulgaris Leaf 16800.0 100000.0 -0.1 *
Tilia sp. Flower -- -- *
Tridax procumbens Plant -- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Tsuga canadensis Leaf -- 15000.0 -1.2 *
Tsuga canadensis Bark 100000.0 150500.0 0.1 *
Tsuga canadensis Root Bark -- 245000.0 0.5 *
Turnera diffusa Leaf 8400.0 40000.0 -0.9 *
Tussilago farfara Leaf -- 170000.0 0.7 *
Tussilago farfara Flower -- 6000.0 -1.4 *
Tussilago farfara Rhizome -- -- *
Ulmus rubra Bark 30000.0 65000.0 -0.7 *
Urtica dioica Leaf 59700.0 133000.0 0.3 Jim Duke's personal files.
Vaccinium vitis-idaea Leaf 60000.0 200000.0 1.1 *
Vaccinium myrtillus Leaf 60000.0 200000.0 1.1 *
Vaccinium myrtillus Fruit 50000.0 120000.0 0.2 *
Vanilla planifolia Fruit -- -- ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Verbena officinalis Plant -- -- *
Veronica officinalis Plant -- -- *
Viburnum prunifolium Root Bark -- 20000.0 -1.4 Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
Viburnum opulus Fruit -- 30000.0 -0.6 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Vinca minor Plant -- -- CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Viola tricolor Plant -- -- *
Vitis vinifera Seed -- -- *
Warburgia ugandensis Bark -- -- *
Yucca baccata Root -- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Zanthoxylum americanum Plant -- -- *
Zizyphus jujuba Fruit -- 100000.0 0.1 *
Zizyphus jujuba Leaf -- 46000.0 -0.8 *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.