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Total Plants: 399
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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Azadirachta indica Fruit 79650.0 81000.0 5.1 *
Carapa guianensis Seed 220000.0 260000.0 5.1 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Vitellaria paradoxa Seed 215660.0 233020.0 4.5 *
Elaeis guineensis Fruit 4600.0 69615.0 4.3 *
Theobroma cacao Seed 111300.0 215450.0 4.1 *
Rosmarinus officinalis Leaf 2310.0 7165.0 4.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Simarouba glauca Seed 169600.0 185220.0 3.5 *
Theobroma bicolor Seed 172655.0 182375.0 3.4 *
Verbascum thapsus Seed -- 164000.0 3.0 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Vitellaria paradoxa Seed Oil -- 459000.0 2.8 Adomako, D. 1977. Fatty Acid Composition and Characteristics of Pentadesma Butyracea Fat Extracted From Ghana Seeds. J. Sci. Food Agr. 28: 384-386.
Zingiber officinale Root 170.0 1540.0 2.8 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Momordica charantia Seed 29800.0 147800.0 2.6 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Theobroma angustifolium Seed 43700.0 115050.0 1.9 *
Terminalia bellirica Seed 40000.0 112000.0 1.9 *
Momordica charantia Cotyledon 121200.0 241800.0 1.7 Jim Duke's personal files.
Verbascum thapsus Seed Oil -- 325000.0 1.7 *
Origanum vulgare Plant 5800.0 6247.0 1.7 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Anacardium occidentale Seed 17725.0 102000.0 1.6 *
Jatropha curcas Seed 26400.0 87360.0 1.3 *
Anamirta cocculus Seed 52250.0 85500.0 1.3 *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.