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Total Plants: 73
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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Vaccinium myrtillus Fruit 5.0 60.0 3.1 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Beta vulgaris Root 0.76 32.0 2.6 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Taraxacum officinale Plant 19.0 50.0 2.3 Chem. & Pharm. Bull. 38: 2205.
Vigna unguiculata Seed 13.0 39.0 1.9 *
Vigna unguiculata Seed 13.0 39.0 1.9 *
Spinacia oleracea Leaf 0.9 90.0 1.8 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Anacardium occidentale Seed -- 35.0 1.5 *
Rubus chamaemorus Fruit 3.0 38.0 1.4 *
Quercus alba Stem 3.7 40.0 1.4 *
Cinnamomum aromaticum Bark -- 30.0 1.2 *
Sorbus aucubaria Fruit 3.0 33.0 1.1 *
Carya ovata Shoot 18.0 192.0 1.0 *
Petroselinum crispum Leaf 2.2 65.0 0.9 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Fallopia japonica Plant 8.0 33.0 0.8 Chem. & Pharm. Bull. 38: 2205.
Ribes nigrum Fruit 1.0 28.0 0.7 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Carya illinoensis Seed -- 22.0 0.5 *
Rosa canina Fruit 10.0 25.0 0.4 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Anethum graveolens Plant 1.1 28.0 0.4 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Raphanus sativus Root 0.44 15.7 0.4 *
Ribes rubrum Fruit 0.9 23.0 0.3 *
Vaccinium vitis-idaea Fruit 2.7 22.0 0.2 *
Lycopersicon esculentum Fruit 0.3 22.0 0.2 *
Citrus paradisi Fruit 0.26 22.0 0.2 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Petasites japonicus Plant 18.0 26.0 0.2 Chem. & Pharm. Bull. 38: 2205.
Cinnamomum burmannii Bark -- 20.0 0.2 *
Cinnamomum verum Bark -- 20.0 0.2 *
Musa x paradisiaca Fruit 2.5 20.0 0.1 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Pyrus communis Fruit 1.6 20.0 0.1 *
Astragalus membranaceus Root 11.0 13.0 0.0 Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Cucumis sativus Fruit 0.4 19.0 -0.0 *
Cocos nucifera Seed -- 16.0 -0.0 Furr, A.K., et al. 1979
Daucus carota Root 0.42 12.7 -0.0 *
Prunus dulcis Seed 5.0 13.0 -0.3 *
Arachis hypogaea Seed -- 13.0 -0.3 *
Prunus domestica Fruit 0.5 15.0 -0.3 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Quercus rubra Stem 3.7 26.0 -0.4 *
Artemisia vulgaris Plant -- 19.0 -0.4 Chem. & Pharm. Bull. 38: 2205.
Brassica rapa Root 1.0 10.0 -0.4 *
Pastinaca sativa Root 0.6 10.0 -0.4 *
Brassica napus var. napobrassica Root 1.0 10.0 -0.4 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Corylus avellana Seed 4.0 11.0 -0.4 *
Peucedanum decursivum Plant 16.0 18.0 -0.5 *
Brassica oleracea var. capitata l. Leaf 0.4 27.5 -0.5 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Pistacia vera Seed -- 10.0 -0.5 *
Pisum sativum Seed 0.77 10.0 -0.5 *
Apium graveolens Root 0.24 9.0 -0.5 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Juglans nigra Seed -- 9.3 -0.6 Furr, A.K., et al. 1979
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l. Leaf 1.0 23.0 -0.7 *
Brassica oleracea var. italica Leaf 1.0 23.0 -0.7 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Malus domestica Fruit 0.27 10.0 -0.7 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Capsicum annuum Fruit 0.38 10.0 -0.7 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Boehmeria nivea Plant 13.0 14.0 -0.8 *
Citrus sinensis Fruit 0.1 7.7 -0.9 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Urtica dioica Leaf 3.2 17.8 -0.9 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Polystichum polyblepharum Plant 10.0 13.0 -0.9 *
Phaseolus vulgaris Fruit 0.47 7.0 -0.9 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Quercus rubra Seed -- 5.0 -0.9 *
Fragaria spp Fruit 0.2 6.5 -0.9 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Quercus velutina Stem 3.7 21.0 -1.0 *
Carya glabra Shoot 1.8 17.0 -1.0 *
Carya ovata Seed -- 4.0 -1.0 *
Vitis vinifera Fruit 0.4 5.5 -1.0 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Glechoma hederacea Plant 10.0 11.0 -1.1 Chem. & Pharm. Bull. 38: 2205.
Juglans cinerea Seed -- 2.5 -1.1 *
Armoracia rusticana Root 0.9 4.6 -1.1 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Vaccinium macrocarpon Fruit 0.5 3.5 -1.2 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Citrus reticulata Fruit 0.25 2.4 -1.3 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Cinnamomum sieboldii Bark -- 3.0 -1.6 *
Allium cepa Bulb 0.14 6.6 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Rheum rhabarbarum Pt 1.1 58.0 *
Solanum tuberosum Tuber 0.64 23.0 ACTA AGRIC SCAND SUPPL 22: 1980
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l. Flower 0.43 11.0 *
Cinnamomum sieboldii Root Bark -- 9.0 *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.