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Total Plants: 515
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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Abelmoschus esculentus Fruit 0.6 7.0 0.4 *
Abelmoschus esculentus Seed -- 1.4 -0.8 Wealth of India.
Acacia nilotica Plant -- -- *
Acacia farnesiana Leaf 2.0 9.0 -0.1 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Achillea millefolium Plant 1.0 5.6 -0.4 *
Actaea racemosa Root -- 0.65 -0.7 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Actinidia chinensis Fruit 0.5 3.0 -0.4 *
Aegle marmelos Fruit 12.0 31.0 5.6 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Agathosma betulina Leaf -- 1.1 -0.2 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Allium sativum var. sativum Root 0.6 1.6 -0.5 *
Allium sativum var. sativum Leaf 1.4 10.3 -0.1 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Allium cepa Bulb 0.4 15.0 1.0 *
Allium schoenoprasum Leaf 1.0 22.0 -0.1 *
Allium sativum var. sativum Flower 0.6 5.2 -0.2 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Allium ampeloprasum Leaf 0.6 9.4 -0.1 *
Allium sativum var. sativum Shoot 0.6 2.7 -1.5 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Allium sativum var. sativum Bulb 0.5 3.0 -1.0 *
Allium ampeloprasum Flower 1.9 11.2 1.2 *
Alocasia macrorrhiza Leaf 0.1 3.4 -0.2 *
Alocasia macrorrhiza Root 0.2 0.6 -0.8 *
Aloe vera Leaf -- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Aloe spp. Leaf -- -- *
Alpinia galanga Rhizome -- 1.0 -1.1 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Althaea officinalis Root 0.1 0.5 -0.8 *
Amaranthus spinosus Leaf 1.6 20.0 -0.1 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Amaranthus sp. Leaf 1.0 26.0 -0.1 *
Amorphophallus konjac Bark -- -- *
Amorphophallus campanulatus Root 0.2 3.2 -0.2 *
Anacardium occidentale Leaf 0.1 0.3 -0.2 *
Anacardium occidentale Fruit 2.4 16.7 2.5 *
Anacardium occidentale Seed 2.0 3.3 -0.1 *
Ananas comosus Fruit -- 3.0 -0.4 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Anethum graveolens Fruit -- 3.0 -0.4 *
Anethum graveolens Plant -- 3.0 -0.6 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Anethum graveolens Seed -- 3.0 -0.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Angelica sinensis Root 0.8 3.4 -0.1 *
Annona diversifolia Fruit 0.3 10.0 1.1 *
Annona squamosa Fruit 1.0 5.0 -0.0 *
Annona cherimola Fruit 1.0 5.5 0.1 *
Annona reticulata Fruit 0.7 5.5 0.1 *
Annona muricata Fruit 0.5 6.0 0.2 *
Annona glabra Fruit 0.7 5.0 -0.0 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Apium graveolens Fruit 0.1 0.6 -0.9 *
Apium graveolens Seed 0.1 0.6 -1.1 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Apium graveolens Pt -- 34.0 1.3 *
Arachis hypogaea Seed 1.3 3.1 -0.2 *
Arachis hypogaea Leaf 5.8 27.0 -0.1 *
Aralia cordata Leaf 0.2 4.0 -0.2 *
Arctium lappa Root 0.8 3.4 -0.1 *
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Leaf -- -- -0.2 *
Areca catechu Seed 6.9 7.9 1.7 *
Armoracia rusticana Root 4.0 20.0 3.5 *
Arracacia xanthorrhiza Root 0.2 0.7 -0.7 *
Artemisia vulgaris Leaf 1.6 13.0 -0.1 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Artemisia dracunculus Plant 13.0 14.0 0.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Artocarpus altilis Fruit 0.3 1.0 -0.9 *
Artocarpus heterophyllus Fruit 1.0 4.0 -0.2 *
Artocarpus altilis Seed 1.0 7.0 1.3 *
Asparagus officinalis Root 2.4 24.0 4.4 *
Asparagus officinalis Shoot 1.0 36.0 1.7 *
Astragalus membranaceus Root 0.4 2.5 -0.3 *
Avena sativa Seed 0.66 11.7 3.1 Jim Duke's personal files.*
Avena sativa Plant 0.4 2.0 -0.7 *
Averrhoa bilimbi Fruit 0.25 5.2 0.0 *
Averrhoa carambola Fruit 0.2 5.2 0.0 *
Bactris gasipaes Fruit 1.0 6.0 0.2 *
Barosma betulina Leaf -- 1.1 -0.2 *
Benincasa hispida Fruit 0.1 28.0 4.9 *
Berberis vulgaris Root -- 9.4 1.2 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Berberis vulgaris Bark -- 9.4 2.1 *
Bertholletia excelsa Seed 0.35 1.0 -1.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Beta vulgaris Leaf 1.7 26.0 -0.1 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Beta vulgaris Root 0.2 3.9 -0.0 *
Bixa orellana Seed -- 5.0 0.6 Duke, J. A. and duCellier, J. L. 1993. CRC Handbook of Alternative Cash Crops. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL 33431. 536 pp. US $312.50.
Bixa orellana Fruit 0.5 3.0 -0.4 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Blighia sapida Aril 1.4 4.5 -0.5 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Blighia sapida Seed 0.9 6.0 0.9 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Boehmeria nivea Leaf 2.8 22.0 -0.1 *
Boehmeria nivea Shoot -- 16.0 -0.2 *
Borago officinalis Leaf 1.0 21.0 -0.1 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica rapa Leaf 0.7 15.0 -0.1 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica rapa Root 0.3 4.0 -0.0 *
Brassica oleracea var. viridis l. Leaf 0.6 10.5 -0.1 *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l. Leaf 1.1 21.0 -0.1 *
Brassica chinensis Leaf 0.7 15.0 -0.1 *
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l. Flower 0.3 11.0 1.1 *
Brassica oleracea Stem 0.2 2.2 -0.9 *
Brassica oleracea var. capitata l. Leaf -- 4.0 -0.2 *
Brassica nigra Leaf 0.56 9.72 -0.1 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica oleracea var. italica Leaf 1.1 21.0 -0.1 *
Brassica oleracea var. sabellica l. Leaf 1.0 8.0 -0.1 *
Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera Leaf 0.4 10.0 -0.1 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Brassica napus var. napobrassica Root 0.4 4.0 -0.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Bromelia pinguin Shoot 0.4 9.0 -0.9 *
Brosimum alicastrum Fruit 0.1 2.3 -0.6 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Bupleurum chinense Root -- -- *
Byrsonima crassifolia Fruit 0.1 2.3 -0.6 *
Cajanus cajan Seed 1.7 8.0 1.7 *
Cajanus cajan Fruit 1.6 6.9 0.4 *
Calathea macrosepala Flower 1.0 13.0 1.6 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Camellia sinensis Leaf 8.0 12.0 -0.1 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Canavalia ensiformis Seed 1.3 1.7 -0.7 *
Canavalia ensiformis Fruit 1.0 4.7 -0.1 *
Canna indica Root 0.1 0.3 -0.8 *
Cannabis sativa Seed 1.7 2.0 -0.6 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Capparis spinosa Flower 0.89 2.16 -1.0 *
Capsella bursa-pastoris Plant 1.7 14.4 0.2 *
Capsicum frutescens Fruit 1.0 8.0 0.6 *
Capsicum annuum Fruit -- 19.0 3.0 *
Carica papaya Leaf 5.0 21.0 -0.1 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Carica papaya Fruit 0.4 3.0 -0.4 *
Carthamus tinctorius Flower 0.5 3.6 -0.6 *
Carthamus tinctorius Seed 1.0 2.0 -0.6 *
Carum carvi Seed 3.0 4.0 0.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Carum carvi Fruit 3.0 4.0 -0.2 *
Carya illinoensis Seed 1.1 1.3 -0.9 *
Casimiroa edulis Fruit 0.4 3.9 -0.2 *
Catha edulis Leaf -- 0.5 -0.2 *
Caulophyllum thalictroides Root 1.0 7.9 0.8 *
Centella asiatica Leaf 1.4 13.0 -0.1 *
Chamaemelum nobile Flower -- 4.3 -0.4 *
Chenopodium album Leaf 12.0 76.0 0.2 *
Chenopodium ambrosioides Leaf 3.0 19.0 -0.1 *
Chenopodium album Seed 1.0 2.0 -0.6 *
Chondrus crispus Plant -- 1.1 -0.7 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Chrysanthemum coronarium Leaf 1.9 29.0 -0.0 *
Chrysanthemum parthenium Leaf 0.5 2.5 -0.2 *
Chrysanthemum coronarium Bud 2.2 30.0 1.0 *
Chrysanthemum parthenium Plant -- 2.5 -0.6 *
Chrysophyllum cainito Fruit 0.2 1.7 -0.7 *
Cicer arietinum Seed 2.0 3.0 -0.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cichorium endivia Leaf 0.7 13.0 -0.1 *
Cichorium intybus Root -- 2.0 -0.5 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cichorium intybus Leaf 1.0 29.0 -0.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cimicifuga racemosa Root 0.1 0.7 -0.7 *
Cinnamomum verum Bark -- 1.0 -0.7 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Cinnamomum aromaticum Bark 1.0 2.0 -0.4 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Citrullus lanatus Seed -- 1.0 -1.0 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Citrullus lanatus Fruit 2.0 8.0 0.6 *
Citrus reticulata Fruit -- 4.0 -0.2 *
Citrus aurantium Fruit 1.0 3.0 -0.4 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Citrus paradisi Fruit -- 5.0 -0.0 *
Citrus limon Fruit 2.0 3.0 -0.4 *
Citrus sinensis Fruit -- 3.0 -0.4 *
Citrus aurantiifolia Fruit -- 2.0 -0.6 *
Cnicus benedictus Plant 0.3 2.1 -0.6 *
Cnidoscolus chayamansa Leaf 3.0 25.0 -0.1 *
Cocos nucifera Seed 0.2 0.7 -1.1 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Coffea arabica Seed -- 1.0 -1.0 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Coffea arabica Leaf -- 2.0 -0.2 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Coix lacryma-jobi Seed 0.6 2.1 -0.5 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Cola acuminata Seed -- 1.0 -1.0 *
Colocasia esculenta Root 0.2 1.6 -0.5 *
Colocasia esculenta Leaf 3.0 35.0 -0.0 *
Corchorus olitorius Leaf 2.6 44.0 0.0 *
Coriandrum sativum Leaf 1.0 21.0 -0.1 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Coriandrum sativum Fruit 3.0 4.0 -0.2 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Corylus avellana Seed 0.6 4.4 0.3 *
Crataegus rhipidophylla Fruit -- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Crataegus laevigata Fruit -- -- *
Crescentia alata Seed -- 1.2 -0.9 *
Crocus sativus Silk Stigma Style 56.0 138.0 1.0 *
Cucumis sativus Fruit 0.2 5.1 0.0 *
Cucumis melo Fruit 0.2 2.4 -0.6 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cucurbita pepo Seed 2.7 4.9 0.5 *
Cucurbita pepo Fruit 1.1 13.1 1.7 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cucurbita spp Fruit 0.4 6.0 0.2 *
Cucurbita pepo Flower 0.7 15.0 2.1 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Cuminum cyminum Fruit 3.0 4.0 -0.2 *
Cuminum cyminum Seed 3.0 4.0 0.2 *
Curcuma longa Rhizome -- 12.0 1.6 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Curcuma longa Plant -- -- *
Cyclanthera pedata Fruit 0.3 5.0 -0.0 *
Cydonia oblonga Fruit 0.3 1.9 -0.7 *
Cynara cardunculus Flower 0.6 7.0 0.2 *
Cyphomandra betacea Fruit 0.3 3.0 -0.4 *
Cyrtosperma chamissonis Root 0.2 1.0 -0.7 *
Daucus carota Root 0.6 5.0 0.2 *
Dioscorea alata Root 0.2 1.1 -0.7 *
Dioscorea sp. Root -- 0.65 -0.7 *
Dioscorea villosa Root 0.1 0.6 -0.8 *
Dioscorea pentaphylla Root 0.2 1.0 -0.7 *
Diospyros digyna Fruit 0.3 1.5 -0.8 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Durio zibethinus Fruit 2.0 10.0 1.1 J Cell Biochem VOL. 22=1995
Echinacea spp Bark -- 3.0 -0.0 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Echinacea purpurea Root 3.0 12.0 1.7 *
Elaeagnus commutata Fruit 0.5 3.6 -0.3 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Elaeagnus umbellatus Fruit 2.9 16.0 2.4 *
Elaeis guineensis Fruit 1.0 1.7 -0.7 *
Eleocharis dulcis Tuber 0.2 9.0 1.7 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Elettaria cardamomum Seed 1.0 2.0 -0.6 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Eleutherococcus senticosus Root 0.5 2.4 -0.4 *
Ephedra sinica Plant 2.3 11.0 -0.0 *
Equisetum arvense Plant 0.4 1.9 -0.7 *
Eriobotrya japonica Fruit 0.4 4.2 -0.2 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Eriodictyon californicum Leaf -- -- *
Eryngium floridanum Shoot -- 15.0 -0.3 *
Erythrina fusca Leaf 1.7 5.2 -0.2 *
Erythrina berteroana Shoot 1.9 12.0 -0.6 *
Erythroxylum coca Leaf 15.0 20.0 -0.1 *
Eugenia uniflora Fruit 0.4 4.5 -0.1 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Eugenia brasiliensis Fruit 0.3 1.9 -0.7 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Eugenia floribunda Fruit 0.2 1.6 -0.7 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Eupatorium perfoliatum Plant -- -- *
Euphrasia officinalis Plant 3.0 18.0 0.5 *
Fagopyrum esculentum Seed 1.7 1.8 -0.7 *
Ficus carica Fruit -- 5.7 0.1 *
Foeniculum vulgare Plant 1.0 14.0 0.2 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Foeniculum vulgare Seed 0.4 3.8 0.1 *
Foeniculum vulgare Fruit -- 4.0 -0.2 *
Fragaria spp Fruit 0.7 8.0 0.6 *
Frangula purshiana Bark -- -- -1.0 *
Fucus vesiculosus Plant -- -- -0.8 *
Garcinia mangostana Fruit 0.2 1.3 -0.8 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Genipa americana Fruit 0.4 1.2 -0.8 *
Gentiana lutea Root 0.5 2.1 -0.4 *
Ginkgo biloba Seed 1.0 3.0 -0.2 *
Ginkgo biloba Leaf 0.3 1.2 -0.2 *
Gliricidia sepium Leaf 0.8 5.0 -0.2 *
Gliricidia sepium Flower 0.8 6.0 -0.0 *
Glycine max Sprout Seedling 1.5 15.0 0.2 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Glycine max Seed 1.7 13.0 3.6 *
Glycine max Fruit 1.6 5.0 -0.0 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Glycyrrhiza glabra Root 0.3 1.6 -0.5 *
Gossypium sp Seed -- 2.3 -0.5 *
Gymnema sylvestre Leaf -- -- *
Harpagophytum procumbens Root -- -- *
Helianthus annuus Seed 2.0 3.0 -0.2 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Helianthus tuberosus Tuber 0.5 3.0 -0.4 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Hibiscus sabdariffa Leaf 1.0 31.0 -0.0 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Hibiscus sabdariffa Flower 0.1 0.5 -1.3 *
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Flower 0.4 4.7 -0.4 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Hordeum vulgare Stem 27.0 28.0 1.4 *
Hordeum vulgare Seed 1.0 9.0 2.1 Jim Duke's personal files.*
Humulus lupulus Fruit -- 10.0 1.1 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Humulus lupulus Flower 2.0 10.1 0.9 *
Hydrangea arborescens Root -- -- *
Hydrastis canadensis Root 0.6 2.0 -0.5 *
Hylocereus undatus Fruit 0.4 2.6 -0.5 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Hylocereus guatemalensis Fruit 0.4 2.5 -0.5 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Ilex paraguariensis Leaf -- -- *
Inga edulis Seed 1.3 3.5 -0.0 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Inga feuillei Aril 0.7 4.4 -0.9 J Cell Biochem VOL. 22=1995
Inula helenium Root 0.7 3.2 -0.2 *
Ipomoea batatas Leaf 2.6 19.0 -0.1 *
Ipomoea aquatica Leaf 1.0 16.0 -0.1 *
Ipomoea batatas Root 0.3 7.0 0.6 *
Juglans nigra Fruit -- 1.0 -0.9 *
Juglans nigra Pericarp 0.1 1.0 *
Juglans regia Seed 1.0 5.0 0.6 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Juglans nigra Seed -- 1.0 -1.0 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Juniperus communis Fruit 0.2 0.6 -0.9 *
Justicia pectoralis Leaf -- 2013.0 9.3 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Lablab purpureus Seed 0.92 7.58 1.6 *
Lagenaria siceraria Fruit 0.2 4.9 -0.0 *
Larrea tridentata Plant 0.6 1.7 -0.7 *
Lens culinaris Sprout Seedling 1.0 5.0 -1.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Lens culinaris Seed 2.0 3.0 -0.2 *
Lepidium meyenii Root 3.5 4.0 -0.0 *
Lepidium sativum Leaf 1.7 25.0 -0.1 *
Licania platypus Fruit 0.13 0.76 -0.9 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Limonia acidissima Fruit 1.7 5.6 0.1 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Linum usitatissimum Seed -- 1.7 -0.7 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Lobelia inflata Leaf -- -- *
Luffa aegyptiaca Fruit 0.6 12.0 1.5 *
Luffa aegyptiaca Leaf 0.6 6.0 -0.1 *
Lupinus mutabilis Fruit 1.5 5.2 0.0 *
Lupinus albus Seed 2.0 3.0 -0.2 *
Lupinus mutabilis Seed 4.4 4.9 0.5 *
Lycium chinense Leaf 3.1 30.0 -0.0 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Lycium chinense Fruit -- 1.4 -0.8 Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Lycopersicon esculentum Fruit 1.0 8.0 0.6 *
Macadamia spp Seed -- 1.0 -1.0 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Malpighia glabra Fruit 0.6 7.0 0.4 *
Malus domestica Fruit -- 1.3 -0.8 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Malva sylvestris Leaf 2.0 35.0 -0.0 *
Malva parviflora Plant -- 2.0 -0.7 *
Mammea americana Fruit 0.2 3.8 -0.3 *
Mangifera indica Leaf 0.6 2.7 -0.2 *
Mangifera indica Fruit 0.5 3.3 -0.4 *
Manihot esculenta Leaf 3.0 15.0 -0.1 *
Manihot esculenta Root 0.2 3.2 -0.2 *
Manilkara zapota Fruit -- 0.4 -1.0 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Maranta arundinacea Root 0.2 0.7 -0.7 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Medicago sativa Plant 2.7 14.2 0.2 *
Melicoccus bijugatas Fruit 0.1 6.4 0.3 *
Mentha spicata Plant 1.0 12.0 0.0 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Mentha x piperita Leaf 6.0 38.9 0.0 *
Mimosa pudica Leaf 0.5 7.0 -0.1 *
Mimulus glabratus Shoot 2.0 20.0 0.2 *
Momordica charantia Leaf 4.6 31.0 -0.0 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Momordica charantia Fruit 0.4 9.0 0.9 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Morinda citrifolia Leaf 0.9 4.0 -0.2 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Moringa oleifera Shoot 6.0 30.0 1.1 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Moringa oleifera Fruit 0.7 6.3 0.3 *
Moringa oleifera Leaf 0.6 6.0 -0.1 =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp
Morus alba Fruit 1.0 14.0 1.9 *
Mucuna pruriens Seed 1.1 2.7 -0.3 *
Muntingia calabura Fruit 0.4 2.1 -0.6 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Murraya koenigii Leaf -- 8.0 -0.1 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Murraya sp Fruit 0.4 1.9 -0.7 *
Musa x paradisiaca Fruit 0.4 6.0 0.2 *
Myrciaria dubia Fruit 0.4 6.7 0.4 *
Myrciaria cauliflora Fruit 0.2 1.3 -0.8 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Myrica cerifera Bark -- -- *
Myristica fragrans Seed -- 1.0 -1.0 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Myristica fragrans Aril 4.0 5.0 1.4 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Nasturtium officinale Herb 1.0 25.0 1.0 *
Nelumbo nucifera Seed 0.4 2.6 -0.4 *
Nelumbo nucifera Rhizome 0.6 3.7 -0.4 *
Nepeta cataria Plant 0.4 3.6 -0.5 *
Ocimum basilicum Leaf 3.0 4.0 -0.2 *
Opuntia ficus-indica Bud -- 0.6 -1.0 Laferriere, J.E., 1988, Nutricomp Program, Nutricomp Database; reviewed in J. Ethnobiology 9(1):27-29.
Opuntia ficus-indica Fruit 0.2 2.2 -0.6 *
Origanum majorana Plant -- 3.0 -0.6 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Oryza sativa Seed 0.5 0.7 -1.1 *
Oxalis tuberosa Root 0.3 4.3 0.0 *
Pachira macrocarpa Seed -- 0.6 -1.1 *
Pachyrhizus erosus Tuber 0.3 2.8 -0.5 *
Panax quinquefolius Plant -- 1.0 -0.7 *
Panax ginseng Root 0.4 1.8 -0.5 *
Papaver somniferum Seed 1.6 1.93 -0.6 *
Parthenium integrifolium Root 0.3 2.0 -0.5 *
Passiflora quadrangularis Seed 1.2 6.0 0.9 *
Passiflora ligularis Fruit 0.6 6.2 0.3 *
Passiflora incarnata Flower 0.1 0.5 -1.3 *
Passiflora quadrangularis Fruit 0.3 5.0 -0.0 *
Passiflora edulis Fruit 1.0 5.0 -0.0 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Passiflora mollissima Fruit 0.3 3.8 -0.3 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Pastinaca sativa Root 0.5 4.0 -0.0 *
Peperomia pereskiifolia Leaf 2.5 17.0 -0.1 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Peperomia pelucida Leaf 0.7 9.0 -0.1 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Pereskia aculeata Fruit 0.3 9.4 0.9 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Perilla frutescens Seed 1.0 8.0 1.7 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Perilla frutescens Leaf 3.0 23.0 -0.1 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Persea schiedeana Fruit 0.7 4.0 -0.2 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Persea americana Fruit 1.0 7.7 0.6 *
Petasites japonicus Pt 0.2 3.6 -1.1 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Petroselinum crispum Plant 1.0 13.5 0.1 *
Phaseolus lunatus Sprout Seedling 1.4 3.9 -1.1 *
Phaseolus coccineus Fruit 1.4 1.9 -0.7 Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.
Phaseolus vulgaris Leaf 0.6 4.5 -0.2 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Phaseolus lunatus Seed 0.3 5.1 0.6 *
Phaseolus acutifolius Seed 1.2 1.3 -0.9 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Phaseolus vulgaris Sprout Seedling 2.5 27.0 1.7 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Phaseolus vulgaris Fruit 1.0 12.0 1.5 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Phaseolus coccineus Seed 1.1 2.2 -0.5 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Phaseolus vulgaris Seed 1.2 3.0 -0.2 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Phoenix dactylifera Fruit 0.2 1.3 -0.8 *
Phyllanthus emblica Fruit 0.4 2.5 -0.5 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Phyllanthus acidus Fruit 0.1 2.0 -0.6 *
Physalis ixocarpa Fruit 0.2 2.4 -0.6 *
Physalis peruviana Fruit 0.2 1.4 -0.8 *
Phytolacca americana Shoot 3.0 39.0 2.0 *
Pimenta dioica Leaf 2.3 3.5 -0.2 *
Pimenta dioica Fruit -- 0.7 -0.9 *
Pinus cembroides Seed 2.0 2.5 -0.4 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Pinus edulis Seed 2.0 3.0 -0.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Pinus pinea Seed 2.0 3.0 -0.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Piper nigrum Fruit 0.4 2.8 -0.5 *
Piper betel Leaf 0.2 2.0 -0.2 *
Piper auritum Leaf 2.4 13.5 -0.1 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Pisum sativum Fruit 0.8 8.0 0.6 *
Pisum sativum Seed 1.2 6.7 1.2 *
Plantago major Seed -- -- *
Plantago psyllium Seed -- -- -1.4 *
Platonia insignis Fruit 0.4 1.4 -0.8 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Platycodon grandiflorum Root 3.9 4.7 0.1 *
Plectranthus amboinicus Leaf 0.7 12.5 -0.1 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Polygonum multiflorum Root -- 0.9 -0.7 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Polymnia edulis Root 0.2 1.1 -0.7 *
Portulaca oleracea Herb 1.0 23.0 -1.0 *
Pourouma cecropiaefolia Fruit 2.2 12.0 1.5 J Cell Biochem VOL. 22=1995
Pouteria caimito Fruit 0.2 7.7 0.6 *
Pouteria viridis Fruit 0.3 0.9 -0.9 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Pouteria campechiana Fruit -- 0.9 -0.9 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Prunus salicifolia Fruit 0.2 1.2 -0.8 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Prunus dulcis Seed 1.6 9.7 2.4 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus armeniaca Seed -- 5.3 0.7 *
Prunus domestica Fruit 0.9 6.5 0.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus armeniaca Fruit 0.4 4.4 -0.1 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Prunus persica Fruit 1.0 4.0 -0.2 *
Prunus cerasus Fruit -- 5.0 -0.0 *
Psidium guajava Fruit 0.4 4.0 -0.2 *
Psidium cattleianum Fruit 0.2 1.9 -0.7 *
Psophocarpus tetragonolobus Seed 1.0 7.7 1.6 *
Pueraria montana Shoot -- 8.0 -1.0 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Punica granatum Fruit -- 4.0 -0.2 *
Pyrus communis Fruit 0.4 2.4 -0.6 *
Quararibea cordata Fruit 0.2 4.5 -0.1 *
Quercus alba Bark -- -- -1.0 *
Raphanus sativus Leaf 2.6 24.0 -0.1 *
Raphanus sativus Fruit 0.3 5.3 0.1 *
Raphanus sativus Root 0.3 9.3 1.1 *
Rheum rhabarbarum Pt 0.3 14.0 -0.3 *
Rheum rhabarbarum Leaf 0.2 3.0 -0.2 *
Rhizophora mangle Leaf -- -- *
Rhodymenia palmata Plant -- 1.1 -0.7 *
Ribes rubrum Fruit 1.0 3.0 -0.4 *
Ribes nigrum Fruit 1.0 3.0 -0.4 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Ribes uva-crispa Fruit -- 2.0 -0.6 *
Ricinus communis Seed -- 1.0 -1.0 List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
Rollinia mucosa Fruit 0.4 1.8 -0.7 Morton, J.F., Major Medicinal Plants. 1977. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Bahamas to Yucatan. 1981.
Rosa canina Fruit 1.4 7.2 0.5 *
Rosa spp Fruit -- -- *
Rosmarinus officinalis Plant 1.5 5.0 -0.4 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Rubus idaeus Leaf -- -- *
Rubus idaeus Fruit 0.9 6.7 0.4 Revised USDA data received 1993.
Rumex crispus Leaf 0.8 10.8 -0.1 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Rumex acetosa Leaf 2.2 22.0 -0.1 *
Rumex crispus Root 3.0 10.8 1.5 *
Ruscus aculeatus Root 0.4 1.4 -0.6 *
Salix alba Bark 0.3 1.7 -0.5 *
Salvia officinalis Leaf 0.6 3.6 -0.2 *
Sambucus canadensis Fruit 1.0 3.0 -0.4 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Sambucus nigra Plant 0.6 0.7 -0.7 *
Schisandra chinensis Fruit 0.1 0.5 -1.0 *
Sclerocarya caffra Fruit 0.5 6.0 0.2 *
Sclerocarya caffra Seed -- 1.2 -0.9 *
Scutellaria lateriflora Plant 0.3 2.2 -0.6 *
Secale cereale Seed 1.0 2.0 -0.6 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Sechium edule Fruit 0.4 5.7 0.1 *
Sechium edule Shoot 0.8 11.0 -0.7 *
Senna alexandrina Leaf 7.0 35.0 -0.0 *
Serenoa repens Fruit 1.0 7.3 0.5 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Sesamum indicum Seed 0.6 3.0 -0.2 *
Sesamum indicum Leaf -- 21.0 -0.1 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Sicana odorifera Fruit 0.4 3.2 -0.4 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Sida rhombifolia Leaf 4.7 24.0 -0.1 *
Silybum marianum Leaf 0.4 2.0 -0.2 *
Sinapis alba Seed -- 4.0 0.2 *
Smilax spp Root -- -- *
Smilax officinalis Root -- -- *
Solanum quitoensis Fruit 0.3 5.0 -0.0 *
Solanum nigrum Plant 1.0 23.0 0.8 *
Solanum melongena Fruit 0.2 8.8 0.8 *
Solanum tuberosum Tuber 0.4 1.9 -0.8 *
Solanum torvum Fruit 0.9 6.0 0.2 *
Sonchus oleraceus Leaf 1.0 16.0 -0.1 *
Spinacia oleracea Plant 1.8 23.4 0.8 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Spirulina pratensis Plant -- 46.0 2.4 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Spirulina spp. Plant -- 46.0 2.4 *
Spondias pinnata Fruit 0.2 2.1 -0.6 *
Spondias mombin Fruit 0.3 3.5 -0.3 *
Spondias purpurea Fruit 0.3 2.1 -0.6 *
Spondias dulcis Fruit 0.2 1.5 -0.8 *
Stachys officinalis Plant -- -- *
Stellaria media Plant 0.1 1.3 -0.7 *
Sterculia urens Gum 17.0 31.0 *
Stevia rebaudiana Leaf -- -- Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Symphytum officinale Root -- 7.2 0.7 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Symphytum officinale Leaf 0.8 7.2 -0.1 *
Syzygium aromaticum Flower 1.0 2.0 -1.0 *
Syzygium aromaticum Fruit 1.0 2.0 -0.6 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Syzygium jambos Fruit 0.3 1.7 -0.7 J Cell Biochem VOL. 22=1995
Syzygium cumini Fruit 0.1 0.7 -0.9 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Syzygium malaccense Fruit 0.2 3.3 -0.4 *
Tabebuia heptaphylla Bark -- -- *
Tamarindus indica Leaf 1.0 5.0 -0.2 *
Tamarindus indica Fruit 1.0 3.0 -0.4 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Tamarindus indica Flower -- 6.0 -0.0 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Tanacetum parthenium Plant -- 2.5 -0.6 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Taraxacum officinale Root 0.3 2.1 -0.4 *
Taraxacum officinale Leaf 1.0 18.0 -0.1 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Terminalia catappa Seed 0.8 3.0 -0.2 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Tetragonia tetragonioides Leaf 1.0 20.0 -0.1 *
Theobroma bicolor Seed 3.4 3.5 -0.0 CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs and/or CRC Handbook of Proximate Analyses
Theobroma cacao Fruit 1.6 3.8 -0.3 J Cell Biochem VOL. 22=1995
Theobroma bicolor Fruit 1.5 7.2 0.5 *
Theobroma speciosum Fruit 10.0 27.0 4.7 J Cell Biochem VOL. 22=1995
Theobroma cacao Seed 1.0 4.0 0.2 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Thymus vulgaris Leaf 0.7 4.3 -0.2 *
Thymus vulgaris Plant 4.0 53.0 2.9 *
Trachyspermum ammi Fruit 2.8 3.0 -0.4 *
Tragopogon porrifolius Root 1.0 10.0 1.3 *
Trichosanthes anguina Fruit 0.6 11.0 1.3 *
Trifolium pratense Flower 0.6 3.3 -0.7 *
Trigonella foenum-graecum Seed 0.4 3.2 -0.1 *
Triticum aestivum Seed 0.7 8.0 1.7 *
Triticum aestivum Plant 11.0 40.0 2.0 *
Tropaeolum tuberosum Root 0.8 8.5 1.0 *
Tropaeolum majus Shoot 3.5 25.5 0.7 *
Turnera diffusa Leaf -- -- *
Ullucus tuberosus Root 0.2 2.2 -0.4 *
Ulmus rubra Bark 0.7 4.1 0.3 *
Urtica dioica Leaf 0.9 4.3 -0.2 *
Vaccinium corymbosum Fruit 0.5 3.4 -0.3 *
Vaccinium myrtillus Fruit 0.2 2.6 -0.5 *
Vaccinium macrocarpon Fruit 0.2 1.9 -0.7 *
Valeriana officinalis Root 0.1 1.2 -0.6 *
Verbascum thapsus Leaf 0.5 1.1 -0.2 *
Vicia faba Seed 1.1 6.0 0.9 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna unguiculata Seed 1.5 4.5 0.4 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna subterranea Seed 1.4 1.6 -0.7 *
Vigna mungo Seed 2.0 2.2 -0.5 *
Vigna unguiculata Seed 2.3 2.6 -0.4 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna radiata Sprout Seedling 1.0 15.0 0.2 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna angularis Seed 1.8 3.0 -0.2 *
Vigna unguiculata Shoot 1.8 17.0 -0.1 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna unguiculata Shoot 1.8 17.0 -0.1 *
Vigna unguiculata Fruit 1.1 9.0 0.9 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna radiata Seed 2.1 2.8 -0.3 USDA's Ag Handbook 8 and sequelae)
Vigna aconitifolia Seed 0.9 1.0 -1.0 *
Vitis vinifera Stem -- 6.9 -0.5 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Vitis vinifera Plant 0.5 3.2 -0.6 *
Xanthosoma sagittifolium Root 0.3 0.9 -0.7 *
Yucca baccata Root 1.4 6.7 0.6 *
Yucca baccata Bark -- 7.0 1.3 Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp.
Zea mays Cob 1.0 3.0 ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.
Zea mays Silk Stigma Style -- 1.5 -1.0 *
Zea mays Fruit 1.0 4.0 -0.2 *
Zingiber officinale Root 0.2 3.1 -0.2 *
Zingiber officinale Rhizome -- 5.0 -0.1 *
Zizyphus spina-christi Fruit -- 1.4 -0.8 *
Zizyphus jujuba Fruit 0.3 2.4 -0.6 *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.