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Total Plants: 437
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Plant Low PPM High PPM StdDev *Reference
Thymus zygis Shoot -- 825.0 0.2 Jimenez, J., Navarro, M.C., Montilla, M.P., Martin, A. and Martinez, A. 1993. Thymus zygis Oil: Its Effects on CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Free Radical Scavenger Activity. JEO5: 153-8.
Thymus mastichina Plant 130.0 340.0 -0.3 Lawrence, B.M., Essential Oils 1976-1977, Essential Oils 1978, Essential Oils 1979-1980.
Thymus longicaulis Shoot -- 3.0 -0.5 Baser, K.H.C., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N. and Tumen, G. 1993. The Occurrence of Three Chemotypes of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis in the same Population. J. Ess. Oil Res. 5: 291-5.
Thymus cilicicus Shoot -- 170.0 -0.4 Tumen, G., Koyuncu, M., Kirimer, N., and Baser, K.H.C. 1994. Composition of the Essential Oil of Thymus cilicicus Boiss. & Bal. J. Ess. Oil Res. 6: 97-8.
Trachyspermum ammi Fruit 6240.0 9512.0 0.7 *
Trichostemma dichotomum Shoot -- 0.3 -0.5 Tucker, A.O. and Maciarello, M.J. 1990. The Essential Oil of Trichostemma dichotomum. J. Ess. Oil Res. 2: 149-150.
Turnera diffusa Leaf -- -- Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Umbellularia californica Plant 100.0 400.0 -0.3 *
Valeriana officinalis Root -- -- *
Valeriana officinalis Root Essent. Oil -- -- *
Vetiveria zizanioides Root -- 15.0 -0.6 *
Vitex agnus-castus Flower -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Vitex agnus-castus Leaf Essent. Oil -- 14400.0 -0.6 Jim Duke's personal files.
Vitex agnus-castus Leaf -- 10.0 -0.4 Ekundayo, O., Laakso, I., Holopainen, M., Hiltunen, R., Oguntimein, B., and Kauppinen, V. 1990. The Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Leaf Oil of Vitex agnus-castus L. J. Essential Oil Research, 2: 115-119.
Vitex agnus-castus Fruit -- -- Jim Duke's personal files.
Zingiber officinale Rhizome Essent. Oil -- 26000.0 *
Zingiber officinale Rhizome -- 90.0 -0.5 *
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.