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Activity *Reference
Antiallergic Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).
Antibacterial 30 ppm *
Antiestrogenic Journal of Medicinal Food 2: 139.1999.
Antifeedant IC52=<1000 ppm diet Lydon, J. & Duke, S., The potential of pesticides from plants, pp. 1-41 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds, Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, & Pharmacology, v. 4, Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1989, 267pp.
Estrogenic EC50=0.1-25 uM/l Journal of Medicinal Food 2: 227.1999.
Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC33=1.25 mM Oszmianski, J. and Lee, C.Y. 1990. Inhibitory Effect of Phenolics on Carotene Bleaching in Vegetables. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38: 688-690.
Pesticide *
Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor IC50=46.1 ug/ml Constantinou, A., Mehta, R., Runyan, C., Rao, K., Vaughan, A., Moon, R. 1995. Flavonoids as DNA Topoisomerase Antagonists and Poisons: Structure-Activity Relationships. J Natural Products, 58: 217-225.
Uterotrophic EC50=0.1-25 uM/l Journal of Medicinal Food 2: 227.1999.
*Unless otherwise noted all references are to Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.