Chemical Dosage References
(+)-CORYDALINE50 uM (weak activity)Kubo, M., et al. 1994. Studies on Anti-cataract Drugs from Natural Sources. I. Effects of a Methanolic Extract and the Alkaloidal Components from Corydalis Tuber on in vit Aldose Reductase Activity. Biol Pharm Bull, 17(3): 458-459.
(+)-GLAUCINE50 uMKubo, M., et al. 1994. Studies on Anti-cataract Drugs from Natural Sources. I. Effects of a Methanolic Extract and the Alkaloidal Components from Corydalis Tuber on in vit Aldose Reductase Activity. Biol Pharm Bull, 17(3): 458-459.
(-)-DANSHEXINKUNIC50=0.87 uMTezuka, Y., Kasimu, R., Basnet, P., Namba, T., Kadota, S. 1997. Aldose Reductase Inhibitory Constituents of the Root of Salvia miltiorhiza Bunge. Chem Pharm Bull, 45(8): 1306-1311.
(-)-EPIGALLOCATECHIN--*
(-)-EPIGALLOCATECHIN-GALLATE--*
(-)-STYLOPINE50 uMKubo, M., et al. 1994. Studies on Anti-cataract Drugs from Natural Sources. I. Effects of a Methanolic Extract and the Alkaloidal Components from Corydalis Tuber on in vit Aldose Reductase Activity. Biol Pharm Bull, 17(3): 458-459.
(-)-TETRAHYDROCOLUMBAMINE50 uM (weak activity)Kubo, M., et al. 1994. Studies on Anti-cataract Drugs from Natural Sources. I. Effects of a Methanolic Extract and the Alkaloidal Components from Corydalis Tuber on in vit Aldose Reductase Activity. Biol Pharm Bull, 17(3): 458-459.
1,2,3,6-TETRA-O-GALLYOL-BETA-D-GLUCOSEIC50=0.63 uM*
1,3,6-TRIHYDROXY-2,7-DIMETHOXY-XANTHONE0.1 uMIketani, Y., Mihashi, H., Sato, S., Takeda, H. 1992. Xanthones as Aldose Reductase Inhibitors. Patent, Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho-04 139,180: 7pp.
1,6,7-TRIHYDROXY-2,3-DIMETHOXY-XANTHONE--Mao, S.L., Liao, S. X., Wu, J. H., Liang, H. Q., Chen, H. S., Zhang, C. K. 1996. Studies on Chemical Constituents of Polygala arillat a Buch-Ham. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao, 31(2): 118-121.
1-HYDROXY-3,6,7-TRIMETHOXY-XANTHONE0.1 uMIketani, Y., Mihashi, H., Sato, S., Takeda, H. 1992. Aldose Reductase Inhibitors Containing Natural Xanthones and Their Synthetic Analogs. Patent, Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho-04 139,179, 12pp.
1-METHOXY-2,3-METHYLENEDIOXY-XANTHONE--Mao, S.L., Liao, S. X., Wu, J. H., Liang, H. Q., Chen, H. S., Zhang, C. K. 1996. Studies on Chemical Constituents of Polygala arillat a Buch-Ham. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao, 31(2): 118-121.
13',II8-BIAPIGENINIC25=10 uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
2'O-ACETYLACETOSIDEIC50=0.19 uM*
2-METHYL-5-(PENTADEC-CIS-8-ENYL)-RESORCINOLIC50=300.7 uMToyomizu, M., Sugiyama, S., Jin, R. L., Nakatsu, T. 1993. Alpha-Glucosidase and Aldose Reductase Inhibitors: Constituents of Cashew, Anacardium occidentale, Nut Shell Liquids. Phytotherapy Research, 7(3): 252-254.
2-METHYL-5-(PENTADECA-CIS-8-CIS-11-DIENYL)-RESORCINOLIC50=118 uMToyomizu, M., Sugiyama, S., Jin, R. L., Nakatsu, T. 1993. Alpha-Glucosidase and Aldose Reductase Inhibitors: Constituents of Cashew, Anacardium occidentale, Nut Shell Liquids. Phytotherapy Research, 7(3): 252-254.
2-PHENYL-ETHYL-O-BETA-D-XYLOPYRANOSYL-(1,6)-BETA-D-GLUCOSIDE--Nishimura, H., Morota, T., Yamaguchi, T., Chin, M. 1990. Extraction of Phenethyl Alcohol Derivatives as Aldose Reductase Inhibitors for Treatment of Diabetes-Related Diseases. Patent, Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho-02 36,189. 13pp.
28-HYDROXY-FRIEDELANE-1,3-DIONEIC50=12 ug/mlChavez, H., Estevez-Braun, A., Ravelo, A. G., Gonzalez, A. G. 1998. Friedelane Triterpenoids from Maytenus macrocarpa. J. Nat. Prod., 61(1): 82-85.
3',4',5,6,7-PENTAACETOXY-8-METHOXY-FLAVONE10 uM (strong activity)Okuda, I., Muwa, B., Inagakat, K., Horie, T., Nakayama, M. 1982. Inhibition of Aldose Reductases from Rat and Bovine Lenses by Flavonoids. Biochem Pharmacol, 31(23): 3807-3822.
3',4',6-TRIHYDROXY-5,7,8-TRIMETHOXY-FLAVONE10 uM (strong activity)Okuda, I., Muwa, B., Inagakat, K., Horie, T., Nakayama, M. 1982. Inhibition of Aldose Reductases from Rat and Bovine Lenses by Flavonoids. Biochem Pharmacol, 31(23): 3807-3822.
3,3',4-TRI-O-METHYL-ELLAGIC-ACIDIC50=0.08 uMTerashima, S., Shimizu, M., Nakayama, H., Ishikura, M., et al. 1990. Studies on Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Medicinal Plant of 'Sinfito,' Potentilla candicans, and Further Synthesis of Their Related Compounds. Chem. Pharm. Bull 38(10):2733-2736, 1990
3,4-DIMETHOXYCINNAMIC-ACID4 ug/ml (weak activity)Ichikawa, K., et al. 1991. Isolation and Structure Determination of Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Traditional Thai Medicine, and Syntheses of Their Derivatives. Sankyo Kenkyusho Nempo, 43: 99-110.
3-(PENTADECA-CIS-8-CIS-11,14-TRIENYL)-PHENOLIC50=180.9 uMToyomizu, M., Sugiyama, S., Jin, R. L., Nakatsu, T. 1993. Alpha-Glucosidase and Aldose Reductase Inhibitors: Constituents of Cashew, Anacardium occidentale, Nut Shell Liquids. Phytotherapy Research, 7(3): 252-254.
3-(PENTADECA-CIS-8-CIS-12-DIENYL)-PHENOLIC50=332.8 uMToyomizu, M., Sugiyama, S., Jin, R. L., Nakatsu, T. 1993. Alpha-Glucosidase and Aldose Reductase Inhibitors: Constituents of Cashew, Anacardium occidentale, Nut Shell Liquids. Phytotherapy Research, 7(3): 252-254.
3-ACETYL-3',4'-DIHYDROXY-5,6,7-TRIMETHOXY-FLAVONE10 uMOkuda, I., Muwa, B., Inagakat, K., Horie, T., Nakayama, M. 1982. Inhibition of Aldose Reductases from Rat and Bovine Lenses by Flavonoids. Biochem Pharmacol, 31(23): 3807-3822.
3-HYDROXY-6-METHOXY-COUMARIN10 uM (weak activity)Okuda, I., Muwa, B., Inagakat, K., Horie, T., Nakayama, M. 1982. Inhibition of Aldose Reductases from Rat and Bovine Lenses by Flavonoids. Biochem Pharmacol, 31(23): 3807-3822.
3-HYDROXY-COUMARIN10 uM (weak activity)Okuda, I., Muwa, B., Inagakat, K., Horie, T., Nakayama, M. 1982. Inhibition of Aldose Reductases from Rat and Bovine Lenses by Flavonoids. Biochem Pharmacol, 31(23): 3807-3822.
4',5,6,7-TETRAHYDROXY-3',8-DIMETHOXY-FLAVONE10 uMOkuda, I., Muwa, B., Inagakat, K., Horie, T., Nakayama, M. 1982. Inhibition of Aldose Reductases from Rat and Bovine Lenses by Flavonoids. Biochem Pharmacol, 31(23): 3807-3822.
4',5,7-TRIHYDROXY-6,8-DIMETHOXY-FLAVONE10 uMOkuda, I., Muwa, B., Inagakat, K., Horie, T., Nakayama, M. 1982. Inhibition of Aldose Reductases from Rat and Bovine Lenses by Flavonoids. Biochem Pharmacol, 31(23): 3807-3822.
4',6-DIHYDROXY-3',5,7,8-TETRAMETHOXY-FLAVONE10 uMOkuda, I., Muwa, B., Inagakat, K., Horie, T., Nakayama, M. 1982. Inhibition of Aldose Reductases from Rat and Bovine Lenses by Flavonoids. Biochem Pharmacol, 31(23): 3807-3822.
4',6-DIHYDROXY-5,7,8-TRIMETHOXY-FLAVONE10 uMOkuda, I., Muwa, B., Inagakat, K., Horie, T., Nakayama, M. 1982. Inhibition of Aldose Reductases from Rat and Bovine Lenses by Flavonoids. Biochem Pharmacol, 31(23): 3807-3822.
4'-HYDROXY-3',5,6,7,8-PENTAMETHOXY-FLAVONE10 uMOkuda, I., Muwa, B., Inagakat, K., Horie, T., Nakayama, M. 1982. Inhibition of Aldose Reductases from Rat and Bovine Lenses by Flavonoids. Biochem Pharmacol, 31(23): 3807-3822.
4'-HYDROXY-5,6,7,8-TETRAMETHOXY-FLAVONE10 uMOkuda, I., Muwa, B., Inagakat, K., Horie, T., Nakayama, M. 1982. Inhibition of Aldose Reductases from Rat and Bovine Lenses by Flavonoids. Biochem Pharmacol, 31(23): 3807-3822.
4-(ALPHA-RHAMNOPYRANOSYL)ELLAGIC-ACIDIC50=4.1 x 10(-8) M*
4-HYDROXY-6,7-METHYLENEDIOXY-COUMARIN10 uMOkuda, I., Muwa, B., Inagakat, K., Horie, T., Nakayama, M. 1982. Inhibition of Aldose Reductases from Rat and Bovine Lenses by Flavonoids. Biochem Pharmacol, 31(23): 3807-3822.
4-HYDROXYCOUMARINIC50=0.53 ug/ml cowOkada,Y,et al.1995.Search for Naturally Occurring Substances to Prevent the Complications of Diabetes.II.Inhibitory Effect of Coumarin and Flavonoid Derivatives on Bovine Lens Aldose Reductase and Rabbit Platelet Aggregation.Chem Pharm Bull43(8):1385-1387
4-METHOXYCOUMARIN10 ug/ml cowOkada,Y,et al.1995.Search for Naturally Occurring Substances to Prevent the Complications of Diabetes.II.Inhibitory Effect of Coumarin and Flavonoid Derivatives on Bovine Lens Aldose Reductase and Rabbit Platelet Aggregation.Chem Pharm Bull43(8):1385-1387
4-O-METHYLELLAGIC-ACID--*
5,6,7-TRIHYDROXY-8-METHOXY-FLAVONE10 uMOkuda, I., Muwa, B., Inagakat, K., Horie, T., Nakayama, M. 1982. Inhibition of Aldose Reductases from Rat and Bovine Lenses by Flavonoids. Biochem Pharmacol, 31(23): 3807-3822.
5,6-DIHYDROXY-7,8-DIMETHOXY-FLAVONE10 uMOkuda, I., Muwa, B., Inagakat, K., Horie, T., Nakayama, M. 1982. Inhibition of Aldose Reductases from Rat and Bovine Lenses by Flavonoids. Biochem Pharmacol, 31(23): 3807-3822.
5,7-DIMETHOXYCOUMARIN10 ug/ml cowOkada,Y,et al.1995.Search for Naturally Occurring Substances to Prevent the Complications of Diabetes.II.Inhibitory Effect of Coumarin and Flavonoid Derivatives on Bovine Lens Aldose Reductase and Rabbit Platelet Aggregation.Chem Pharm Bull43(8):1385-1387
5-(PENTADEC-CIS-8-ENYL)-RESORCINOLIC50=28.2 uMToyomizu, M., Sugiyama, S., Jin, R. L., Nakatsu, T. 1993. Alpha-Glucosidase and Aldose Reductase Inhibitors: Constituents of Cashew, Anacardium occidentale, Nut Shell Liquids. Phytotherapy Research, 7(3): 252-254.
5-(PENTADECA-CIS-8-CIS-11,14-TRIENYL)-RESORCINOLIC50=57.2 uMToyomizu, M., Sugiyama, S., Jin, R. L., Nakatsu, T. 1993. Alpha-Glucosidase and Aldose Reductase Inhibitors: Constituents of Cashew, Anacardium occidentale, Nut Shell Liquids. Phytotherapy Research, 7(3): 252-254.
5-(PENTADECA-CIS-8-CIS-11-DIENYL)-RESORCINOLIC50=28.4 uMToyomizu, M., Sugiyama, S., Jin, R. L., Nakatsu, T. 1993. Alpha-Glucosidase and Aldose Reductase Inhibitors: Constituents of Cashew, Anacardium occidentale, Nut Shell Liquids. Phytotherapy Research, 7(3): 252-254.
5-PENTADECYL-RESORCINOLIC50=312 uMToyomizu, M., Sugiyama, S., Jin, R. L., Nakatsu, T. 1993. Alpha-Glucosidase and Aldose Reductase Inhibitors: Constituents of Cashew, Anacardium occidentale, Nut Shell Liquids. Phytotherapy Research, 7(3): 252-254.
6,3'4'-TRIHYDROXY-5,7,8-TRIMETHOXYFLAVONEIC73=0.1uMAida, K., Tawata, M., Shindo, H., Onaya, T., Sasaki, H., Yamaguchi, T., Chin, M.(Chen, Z.), and Mitsuhashi, H. 1989. Isoliquiritigenin: A New Aldose Reductase Inhibitor from Glycyrrhizae Radix. Planta Medica 56(3): 254-258.
6,7-DIACETOXYCOUMARIN10 ug/ml cow, 14% inhibitionOkada,Y,et al.1995.Search for Naturally Occurring Substances to Prevent the Complications of Diabetes.II.Inhibitory Effect of Coumarin and Flavonoid Derivatives on Bovine Lens Aldose Reductase and Rabbit Platelet Aggregation.Chem Pharm Bull43(8):1385-1387
6,8-DI-(GAMMA-GAMMA-DIMETHYL-ALLYL)-GENISTEIN10 uMIinuma, M., Tanaka, T., Mizuno, M., Katsuzaki, T., Ogawa, H. 1989. Structure-Activity Correlation of Flavonoids for Inhibition of Bovine Lens Aldose Reductase. Chem Pharm Bull, 37(7): 1813-1815.
6-(PENTADEC-CIS-8-ENYL)-SALICYLIC-ACIDIC50=40.4 uMToyomizu, M., Sugiyama, S., Jin, R. L., Nakatsu, T. 1993. Alpha-Glucosidase and Aldose Reductase Inhibitors: Constituents of Cashew, Anacardium occidentale, Nut Shell Liquids. Phytotherapy Research, 7(3): 252-254.
6-(PENTADECA-CIS-8-CIS-11,14-TRIENYL)-SALICYLIC-ACIDIC50=20.4 uMToyomizu, M., Sugiyama, S., Jin, R. L., Nakatsu, T. 1993. Alpha-Glucosidase and Aldose Reductase Inhibitors: Constituents of Cashew, Anacardium occidentale, Nut Shell Liquids. Phytotherapy Research, 7(3): 252-254.
6-(PENTADECYL)-SALICYLIC-ACIDIC50=100.4 uMToyomizu, M., Sugiyama, S., Jin, R. L., Nakatsu, T. 1993. Alpha-Glucosidase and Aldose Reductase Inhibitors: Constituents of Cashew, Anacardium occidentale, Nut Shell Liquids. Phytotherapy Research, 7(3): 252-254.
6-(PENTADECYL-CIS-8-CIS-11-DIENYL)-SALICYLIC-ACIDIC50=49.3 uMToyomizu, M., Sugiyama, S., Jin, R. L., Nakatsu, T. 1993. Alpha-Glucosidase and Aldose Reductase Inhibitors: Constituents of Cashew, Anacardium occidentale, Nut Shell Liquids. Phytotherapy Research, 7(3): 252-254.
6-HYDROXY-5,7,8-TRIMETHOXY-FLAVONE10 uMOkuda, I., Muwa, B., Inagakat, K., Horie, T., Nakayama, M. 1982. Inhibition of Aldose Reductases from Rat and Bovine Lenses by Flavonoids. Biochem Pharmacol, 31(23): 3807-3822.
6-HYDROXY-LUTEOLINIC53=1 uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
6-HYDROXY-LUTEOLINIC87=10 uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
6-HYDROXYKAEMPFEROL-3,6-DIMETHYL-ETHER--Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
6-O-TRANS-FERULOYL-AJUGOL10 uM, 59% inhibitionNishimura, H., Morota, T., Yamaguchi, T., Chin, M. 1990. Isolation of Iridoids as Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Rehmannia glutinosa. Patent, Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho-02 96,587. 9pp.
7-ACETOXY-6-METHOXYCOUMARIN10 ug/ml cow (weak activity, 11% inhibition)Okada,Y,et al.1995.Search for Naturally Occurring Substances to Prevent the Complications of Diabetes.II.Inhibitory Effect of Coumarin and Flavonoid Derivatives on Bovine Lens Aldose Reductase and Rabbit Platelet Aggregation.Chem Pharm Bull43(8):1385-1387
7-METHYL-AXILLARIN10 uMOkuda, I., Muwa, B., Inagakat, K., Horie, T., Nakayama, M. 1982. Inhibition of Aldose Reductases from Rat and Bovine Lenses by Flavonoids. Biochem Pharmacol, 31(23): 3807-3822.
7-METHYLCAPILLARISIN10 uM ratYamaguchi, T., Ueda, T., Sata, S., Mihashi, H. 1989. Aldose Reductase Inhibitors for Treatment of Diabetic Diseases. Patent, Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho-01 228,914. 5pp.
7-O-ACETYL-8-EPI-LOGANIC-ACID--Kohda, H., Tanaka, S., Yamaoka, Y., Yahara, S., Nohara, T., Tanimoto, T., Tanaka, A. 1989. Studies on Lens-Aldose-Reductase Inhibitor in Medicinal Plants.II Active Constituents of Monochasma savatierii FRANCH, et MAXIM. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 37(11):3153-3154
8,9-DIHYDROXY-3-METHOXYCOUMESTAN10 uMOkuda, I., Muwa, B., Inagakat, K., Horie, T., Nakayama, M. 1982. Inhibition of Aldose Reductases from Rat and Bovine Lenses by Flavonoids. Biochem Pharmacol, 31(23): 3807-3822.
8-METHOXY-CIRSILINEOL10 uMOkuda, I., Muwa, B., Inagakat, K., Horie, T., Nakayama, M. 1982. Inhibition of Aldose Reductases from Rat and Bovine Lenses by Flavonoids. Biochem Pharmacol, 31(23): 3807-3822.
ACACETIN--Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
ACACETIN-7-O-(6''-ALPHA-L-RHAMNOPYRANOSYL)-BETA-D-GLUCOPYRANOSIDEIC50=4.7 uM ratYoshikawa, M., et al. 1999. Medicinal Flowers. I. Aldose Reductase Inhibitors and Three New Eudesmane-Type Sesquiterpenes, Kikkanols A, B, and C, From the Flowers of Chrysanthemum inducum L. Chem Pharm Bull, 47(3): 340-345.
ACARBOSE0.4 g/kg diet ratCohen-Melamed, E., Nyska, A., Pollack, A., Madar, Z. 1995. Aldose Reductase (EC 1.1.1.21) Activity and Reduced-Glutatione Content in Lenses of Diabetic Sand Rats (Psammomys obesus) Fed with Acarbose. Brit J Nutr, 74(5): 607-615.
ACETOSIDEIC50=0.4 ppmKohda, H., Tanaka, S., Yamaoka, Y., Yahara, S., Nohara, T., Tanimoto, T., Tanaka, A. 1989. Studies on Lens-Aldose-Reductase Inhibitor in Medicinal Plants.II Active Constituents of Monochasma savatierii FRANCH, et MAXIM. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 37(11):3153-3154
ACETYL-TRISULFATE-QUERCETINIC50=0.1 uM*
ACTEOSIDEIC50=0.39 uMMurata, M., Yamakoshi, Y., Homma, S., Arai, K., and Nakamura, Y. 1992. Macrocarpals, Antibacterial Compounds from Eucalyptus, Inhibit Aldose Reductase. Biosci. Biotech. Biochem., 56(12): 2062-2063, 1992.
AESCULETINIC50=0.74 ug/ml cowOkada,Y,et al.1995.Search for Naturally Occurring Substances to Prevent the Complications of Diabetes.II.Inhibitory Effect of Coumarin and Flavonoid Derivatives on Bovine Lens Aldose Reductase and Rabbit Platelet Aggregation.Chem Pharm Bull43(8):1385-1387
AESCULIN10 ug/ml cowOkada,Y,et al.1995.Search for Naturally Occurring Substances to Prevent the Complications of Diabetes.II.Inhibitory Effect of Coumarin and Flavonoid Derivatives on Bovine Lens Aldose Reductase and Rabbit Platelet Aggregation.Chem Pharm Bull43(8):1385-1387
ALLO-CYMENE100 ug/ml (weak activity)Okamura, K., Iwakami, S., Matsunaga, T. 1992. Biological Activity of Monoterpenes from Trees. Toyama-Ken Yakuji Kenkyusho Nenpo, (20): 95-101.
ALLOCRYPTOPINEIC50=27.9 uM ratAl-Khalil, S. 1996. Inhibition of Lens Alkaloids Reductase by Protopine Alkaloids. Saudi Pharm J, 4(1): 45-47.
ALPHA-TERPINENE100 ug/mlOkamura, K., Iwakami, S., Matsunaga, T. 1992. Biological Activity of Monoterpenes from Trees. Toyama-Ken Yakuji Kenkyusho Nenpo, (20): 95-101.
ALPHA-TERPINEOL100 ug/mlOkamura, K., Iwakami, S., Matsunaga, T. 1992. Biological Activity of Monoterpenes from Trees. Toyama-Ken Yakuji Kenkyusho Nenpo, (20): 95-101.
AMENTOFLAVONEIC25=10 uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
APIIN--Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
ARENARIOSIDEIC50=2.38 uMAndary, C. Caffeic Acid Glycoside Esters and Pharmacology. Polyphenolic Phenom, 1993: 237-245.
ASCORBIC-ACID--Challem, J., Berkson, Burt, and Smith, Melissa Dianne. 2000. Syndrome X - The complete nutritional program to prevent and reservse insulin resistance. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 272 pp. $24.95
ASTILBIN60 uM pigHaraguchi, H., Ohmi, I., Masuda, H., Tamura, Y., Mizutani, K., Tanaka, O., Chou, W. H. 1996. Inhibition of Aldose Reductase by Dihydroflavonols in Engelhardtia chrysolepis and Effects on Other Enzymes. Experientia, 52(6): 564-567.
ASTRAGALINIC62=10 uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
ASTRAGALINIC30=1 uM*
AURANTIOBTUSINIC50=13.6 uM*
AVICULARINIC32=1 uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
AVICULARINIC84=10 uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
AXILLARINIC80=0.1 uM*
AXILLARIN10 uMOkuda, I., Muwa, B., Inagakat, K., Horie, T., Nakayama, M. 1982. Inhibition of Aldose Reductases from Rat and Bovine Lenses by Flavonoids. Biochem Pharmacol, 31(23): 3807-3822.
BAICALEINIC50=0.98 rbtKohda, H., Tanaka, S., Yamaoka, Y., Yahara, S., Nohara, T., Tanimoto, T., Tanaka, A. 1989. Studies on Lens-Aldose-Reductase Inhibitor in Medicinal Plants.II Active Constituents of Monochasma savatierii FRANCH, et MAXIM. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 37(11):3153-3154
BAICALEINIC62=10 uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
BAICALEINIC50=0.98 ppmKohda, H., Tanaka, S., Yamaoka, Y., Yahara, S., Nohara, T., Tanimoto, T., Tanaka, A. 1989. Studies on Lens-Aldose-Reductase Inhibitor in Medicinal Plants.II Active Constituents of Monochasma savatierii FRANCH, et MAXIM. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 37(11):3153-3154
BAICALINIC50=13.6 uM ratShin, K. H., Chae, Y. J., Chung, M. S., Lee, H. J. 1994. Effect of Flavonoids from Scutellariae radix on Cataract Formation and Polyol Accumulation in Rat Lens. Korean J Pharmacog, 25(1): 41-46.
BAICALINIC42=10 uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
BERBERINE-CHLORIDEIC100=14 nM*
BERBERINE-IODIDEIC100=33 nM*
BERBERINE-SULFATEIC100=13.5 nM*
BRAZILINED50=100 uM*
BREVIFOLIN-CARBOXYLIC-ACIDIC50=2.4 uMShimizu, M., Horie, S., Terashima, S., Ueno, H., et al. 1989. Studies on Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Natural Products.II. Active Components of a Paraguayan Crude Drug 'Para-parai mi,' Phyllanthus niruri. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 37(9): 2531-2532, 1989.
CAFFEIC-ACID4 ug/ml (weak activity)Ichikawa, K., et al. 1991. Isolation and Structure Determination of Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Traditional Thai Medicine, and Syntheses of Their Derivatives. Sankyo Kenkyusho Nempo, 43: 99-110.
CAPILLARISIN10 uM ratYamaguchi, T., Ueda, T., Sata, S., Mihashi, H. 1989. Aldose Reductase Inhibitors for Treatment of Diabetic Diseases. Patent, Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho-01 228,914. 5pp.
CAPILLARISINIC50=0.22 ug/ml cowOkada,Y,et al.1995.Search for Naturally Occurring Substances to Prevent the Complications of Diabetes.II.Inhibitory Effect of Coumarin and Flavonoid Derivatives on Bovine Lens Aldose Reductase and Rabbit Platelet Aggregation.Chem Pharm Bull43(8):1385-1387
CARYOLANE-1,9-BETA-DIOLIC50=45 uM rat (weak activity)Yoshikawa, M., et al. 1999. Medicinal Flowers. I. Aldose Reductase Inhibitors and Three New Eudesmane-Type Sesquiterpenes, Kikkanols A, B, and C, From the Flowers of Chrysanthemum inducum L. Chem Pharm Bull, 47(3): 340-345.
CARYOPHYLLENE--*
CHLOROGENIC-ACIDIC50=1.8 uM rat (strong activity)Yoshikawa, M., et al. 1999. Medicinal Flowers. I. Aldose Reductase Inhibitors and Three New Eudesmane-Type Sesquiterpenes, Kikkanols A, B, and C, From the Flowers of Chrysanthemum inducum L. Chem Pharm Bull, 47(3): 340-345.
CHRYSIN-5,7-DIHYDROXYFLAVONE--Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
CHRYSOERIOLIC31=10 uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
CHRYSOSPLENOLIC28=10 uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
CHRYSOSPLENOSIDE-AIC15=10 uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
CHRYSOSPLENOSIDE-DIC27=10 uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
CINNAMIC-ACID4 ug/ml (weak activity)Ichikawa, K., et al. 1991. Isolation and Structure Determination of Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Traditional Thai Medicine, and Syntheses of Their Derivatives. Sankyo Kenkyusho Nempo, 43: 99-110.
CIRSILINEOL10 uMOkuda, I., Muwa, B., Inagakat, K., Horie, T., Nakayama, M. 1982. Inhibition of Aldose Reductases from Rat and Bovine Lenses by Flavonoids. Biochem Pharmacol, 31(23): 3807-3822.
CIRSILINEOL-4'-O-BETA-D-GLUCOSIDE10 uMOkuda, I., Muwa, B., Inagakat, K., Horie, T., Nakayama, M. 1982. Inhibition of Aldose Reductases from Rat and Bovine Lenses by Flavonoids. Biochem Pharmacol, 31(23): 3807-3822.
CIRSILIOL10 uMOkuda, I., Muwa, B., Inagakat, K., Horie, T., Nakayama, M. 1982. Inhibition of Aldose Reductases from Rat and Bovine Lenses by Flavonoids. Biochem Pharmacol, 31(23): 3807-3822.
CIRSILIOL-4'-O-BETA-D-GLUCOSIDE10 uMOkuda, I., Muwa, B., Inagakat, K., Horie, T., Nakayama, M. 1982. Inhibition of Aldose Reductases from Rat and Bovine Lenses by Flavonoids. Biochem Pharmacol, 31(23): 3807-3822.
CIRSIMARITINIC50=1.6 ug/ml cowOkada,Y,et al.1995.Search for Naturally Occurring Substances to Prevent the Complications of Diabetes.II.Inhibitory Effect of Coumarin and Flavonoid Derivatives on Bovine Lens Aldose Reductase and Rabbit Platelet Aggregation.Chem Pharm Bull43(8):1385-1387
CIRSIMARITIN10 uMOkuda, I., Muwa, B., Inagakat, K., Horie, T., Nakayama, M. 1982. Inhibition of Aldose Reductases from Rat and Bovine Lenses by Flavonoids. Biochem Pharmacol, 31(23): 3807-3822.
CIRSIMARITIN-4'-O-BETA-D-GLUCOSIDE10 uMOkuda, I., Muwa, B., Inagakat, K., Horie, T., Nakayama, M. 1982. Inhibition of Aldose Reductases from Rat and Bovine Lenses by Flavonoids. Biochem Pharmacol, 31(23): 3807-3822.
CITRININIC50=10 uMDeruiter, J., Jacyno, J. M., Davis, R. A., Cutler, H. G. 1992. Studies on Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Fungi. I. Citrinin and Related Benzopyran Derivatives. J Enzyme Inhibit, 6(3): 201-210.
CONDURITOL-A10 mMMiyatake, K., et al. 1994. Effect of Conduritol A, a Polyol from Gymnema sylvestre, on the Development of Diabetic Cataracts in Streptozotocin-Treated Rats and on Aldose Reductase. Biosci Biotech Biochem, 58(4): 756-757.
COSMOSIINIC40=1 uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
COSMOSIINIC99=10 uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
COUMARIN10 ug/ml cow (weak activity, 11% inhibition)Okada,Y,et al.1995.Search for Naturally Occurring Substances to Prevent the Complications of Diabetes.II.Inhibitory Effect of Coumarin and Flavonoid Derivatives on Bovine Lens Aldose Reductase and Rabbit Platelet Aggregation.Chem Pharm Bull43(8):1385-1387
CRYPTOTANSHINONEIC50=10 uM ratKasimu, R., Basnet, P., Tezuka, Y., Kadota, S., Namba, T. 1997. Danshenols A and B, New Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from the Root of Salvia miltiorhiza BUNGE. Chem Pharm Bull, 45(3): 564-566.
CYNAROSIDEIC50=0.99 uM rat (strong activity)Yoshikawa, M., et al. 1999. Medicinal Flowers. I. Aldose Reductase Inhibitors and Three New Eudesmane-Type Sesquiterpenes, Kikkanols A, B, and C, From the Flowers of Chrysanthemum inducum L. Chem Pharm Bull, 47(3): 340-345.
DANSHENOL-AIC50=0.1 uM rat*
DANSHENOL-BIC50=1.75 uM rat*
DAUCOSTEROL0.1 mM/l rat (weak activity, 31.9% inhibition)Fujita, T., Ohira, K., Miyatake, K., Nakano, Y., Nakayama, M. 1995. Inhibitory Effect of Perillosides A and C, Related Monoterpene Glucosides on Aldose Reductase and Their Structure-Activity Relationships. Chem Pharm Bull, 43(6): 920-926.
DEHYDROCORYDALINE10 uMKubo, M., et al. 1994. Studies on Anti-cataract Drugs from Natural Sources. I. Effects of a Methanolic Extract and the Alkaloidal Components from Corydalis Tuber on in vit Aldose Reductase Activity. Biol Pharm Bull, 17(3): 458-459.
DELTA-CADINENE--*
DEMETHYLMUSSAENOSIDEIC50=61.4 uM rbtKohda, H., Tanaka, S., Yamaoka, Y., Yahara, S., Nohara, T., Tanimoto, T., Tanaka, A. 1989. Studies on Lens-Aldose-Reductase Inhibitor in Medicinal Plants.II Active Constituents of Monochasma savatierii FRANCH, et MAXIM. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 37(11):3153-3154
DESMANTHIN-1IC50=0.082 uM (strong activity)Yoshikawa, M., et al. 1998. Antidiabetic Principles of Natural Medicines. II. Aldose Reductase and Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors from Brazilian Natural Medicine, the Leaves of Myrcia multiflora DC. (....). Chem Pharm Bull, 46(1): 113-119.
DIACERYLCIRSIMARITINIC35=10 uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
DIHYDROTANSHINONEIC50=1.19 uM ratKasimu, R., Basnet, P., Tezuka, Y., Kadota, S., Namba, T. 1997. Danshenols A and B, New Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from the Root of Salvia miltiorhiza BUNGE. Chem Pharm Bull, 45(3): 564-566.
DIHYDROTANSHINONE-IIC50=1.19 uMTezuka, Y., Kasimu, R., Basnet, P., Namba, T., Kadota, S. 1997. Aldose Reductase Inhibitory Constituents of the Root of Salvia miltiorhiza Bunge. Chem Pharm Bull, 45(8): 1306-1311.
DIOSMETINIC17=10 uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
DISOMETINIC17=10 uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
DL-TETRAHYDROPALMATINE50 uMKubo, M., et al. 1994. Studies on Anti-cataract Drugs from Natural Sources. I. Effects of a Methanolic Extract and the Alkaloidal Components from Corydalis Tuber on in vit Aldose Reductase Activity. Biol Pharm Bull, 17(3): 458-459.
DOSMETINIC17=10uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
ECHINATIN1 ug/mLAida, K., Tawata, M., Shindo, H., Onaya, T., Sasaki, H., Yamaguchi, T., Chin, M.(Chen, Z.), and Mitsuhashi, H. 1989. Isoliquiritigenin: A New Aldose Reductase Inhibitor from Glycyrrhizae Radix. Planta Medica 56(3): 254-258.
ELLAGIC-ACIDIC50=0.2 uM*
ELLAGIC-ACIDIC50=0.2 ug/ml (strong activity)*
EMBININIC13=10 uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
EMODINIC50=15.9 uM*
ETHYL-BREVIFOLIN-CARBOXYLATEIC50=5 uMShimizu, M., Horie, S., Terashima, S., Ueno, H., et al. 1989. Studies on Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Natural Products.II. Active Components of a Paraguayan Crude Drug 'Para-parai mi,' Phyllanthus niruri. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 37(9): 2531-2532, 1989.
EUGENOL-BETA-D-GLUCOSIDE0.1 mM/l rat (weak activity, 35.2% inhibition)Fujita, T., Ohira, K., Miyatake, K., Nakano, Y., Nakayama, M. 1995. Inhibitory Effect of Perillosides A and C, Related Monoterpene Glucosides on Aldose Reductase and Their Structure-Activity Relationships. Chem Pharm Bull, 43(6): 920-926.
EUPATILINIC50=25 uM rat (weak activity)Yoshikawa, M., et al. 1999. Medicinal Flowers. I. Aldose Reductase Inhibitors and Three New Eudesmane-Type Sesquiterpenes, Kikkanols A, B, and C, From the Flowers of Chrysanthemum inducum L. Chem Pharm Bull, 47(3): 340-345.
FLAVOCANNABISIDE--Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
FLAVOSATIVASIDE--Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
FORSYTHOSIDE-BIC50=4.83 uMAndary, C. Caffeic Acid Glycoside Esters and Pharmacology. Polyphenolic Phenom, 1993: 237-245.
FRAXIN10 ug/ml cowOkada,Y,et al.1995.Search for Naturally Occurring Substances to Prevent the Complications of Diabetes.II.Inhibitory Effect of Coumarin and Flavonoid Derivatives on Bovine Lens Aldose Reductase and Rabbit Platelet Aggregation.Chem Pharm Bull43(8):1385-1387
FRAXINOL10 ug/ml cowOkada,Y,et al.1995.Search for Naturally Occurring Substances to Prevent the Complications of Diabetes.II.Inhibitory Effect of Coumarin and Flavonoid Derivatives on Bovine Lens Aldose Reductase and Rabbit Platelet Aggregation.Chem Pharm Bull43(8):1385-1387
GAMMA-TERPINENE100 ug/mlOkamura, K., Iwakami, S., Matsunaga, T. 1992. Biological Activity of Monoterpenes from Trees. Toyama-Ken Yakuji Kenkyusho Nenpo, (20): 95-101.
GENISTEINIC50=10 uM*
GOSSYPETIN-8-GLUCOSIDE--*
GOSSYPOL--Deck, L. M., Vander Jagt, D. L., Royer, R. E. 1991. Gossypol and Derivatives: A New Class of Aldose Reductase Inhibitors. J Med Chem, 34(1): 3301-3305.
GUAIJAVERINIC50=0.18 uMYoshikawa, M., et al. 1998. Antidiabetic Principles of Natural Medicines. II. Aldose Reductase and Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors from Brazilian Natural Medicine, the Leaves of Myrcia multiflora DC. (....). Chem Pharm Bull, 46(1): 113-119.
HAEMATOXYLIN--*
HERNIARIN10 ug/ml cow (weak activity)Okada,Y,et al.1995.Search for Naturally Occurring Substances to Prevent the Complications of Diabetes.II.Inhibitory Effect of Coumarin and Flavonoid Derivatives on Bovine Lens Aldose Reductase and Rabbit Platelet Aggregation.Chem Pharm Bull43(8):1385-1387
HISPIDULOSIDEED50=1-10 uM*
HYMENOXIN10 uMOkuda, I., Muwa, B., Inagakat, K., Horie, T., Nakayama, M. 1982. Inhibition of Aldose Reductases from Rat and Bovine Lenses by Flavonoids. Biochem Pharmacol, 31(23): 3807-3822.
HYPERIN--Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
HYPEROSIDE--Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
INDOLE--*
IRIDINEIC21=10uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
ISOCHLOROGENIC-ACID-A4 ug/mlIchikawa, K., et al. 1991. Isolation and Structure Determination of Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Traditional Thai Medicine, and Syntheses of Their Derivatives. Sankyo Kenkyusho Nempo, 43: 99-110.
ISOCHLOROGENIC-ACID-B4 ug/mlIchikawa, K., et al. 1991. Isolation and Structure Determination of Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Traditional Thai Medicine, and Syntheses of Their Derivatives. Sankyo Kenkyusho Nempo, 43: 99-110.
ISOFRAXIDIN10 ug/ml cow (weak activity, 18% inhibition)Okada,Y,et al.1995.Search for Naturally Occurring Substances to Prevent the Complications of Diabetes.II.Inhibitory Effect of Coumarin and Flavonoid Derivatives on Bovine Lens Aldose Reductase and Rabbit Platelet Aggregation.Chem Pharm Bull43(8):1385-1387
ISOLIQUIRITIGENINIC50=0.32 uM*
ISOLIQUIRITIGENIN0.1 ug/ml*
ISOLIQUIRITINIC50=0.72 uMAida, K., Tawata, M., Shindo, H., Onaya, T., Sasaki, H., Yamaguchi, T., Chin, M.(Chen, Z.), and Mitsuhashi, H. 1989. Isoliquiritigenin: A New Aldose Reductase Inhibitor from Glycyrrhizae Radix. Planta Medica 56(3): 254-258.
ISOQUERCITRIN--Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
ISOSCOPOLETIN10 ug/ml cow (weak activity)Okada,Y,et al.1995.Search for Naturally Occurring Substances to Prevent the Complications of Diabetes.II.Inhibitory Effect of Coumarin and Flavonoid Derivatives on Bovine Lens Aldose Reductase and Rabbit Platelet Aggregation.Chem Pharm Bull43(8):1385-1387
JIOCAROTENOSIDE-A-1--Sasaki, H., Nishimura, H., Morota, T., Katshara, T., Zhengxiong, C., Mitsuhashi, H. 1991. Norcarotenoid Glycosides of Rehmannia glutinosa var. purpurea. Phytochemistry, 30(5): 1639-1644.
JIONOSIDEIC50=0.51uM*
JUGLANINIC65=10 uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
KAEMPFEROL100 uMOliveira, T. T., Nagem, T. J., Miranda, L. C. G., Paula, V. F., Teixeira, M. A. 1997. Inhibitory Action on Aldose Reductase by Soybean Flavonoids. J Braz Chem Soc, 8(3): 211-213.
KAEMPFEROL-3-RHAMNOSIDEIC43=1uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
KAEMPFEROL-3-RHAMNOSIDEIC85=10 uM*
KAEMPFEROL=3=NEOHESPERIDOSIDEIC30=10uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
KOLAVIRONIC50= 5.4Iwu, M. M., Igboko, O. A., Okunji, C. O., and Tempesta, M. S., Antidiabetic and aldose reductase activities in biflavanones of Garcinia kola, J. Pharm Pharmacol, 42(4), 1990, 290-2.
KOLAVIRONIC50=5.4Iwu, M. M., Igboko, O. A., Okunji, C. O., and Tempesta, M. S., Antidiabetic and aldose reductase activities in biflavanones of Garcinia kola, J. Pharm Pharmacol, 42(4), 1990, 290-2.
KUWANON-C100 uMYamaguchi, T., Sato, J., Mihashi, H., Nomura, T. 1991. Aldose Reductase Inhibitors Containing Benzopyrans for Treatment of Diseases Associated with Diabetes. Patent, Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho-03 68,517. 9pp.
LICORICIDIN100 uMYamaguchi, T., Sato, J., Mihashi, H., Nomura, T. 1991. Aldose Reductase Inhibitors Containing Benzopyrans for Treatment of Diseases Associated with Diabetes. Patent, Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho-03 68,517. 9pp.
LICURASIDEIC50=0.56 uM*
LINARIINIC18=10uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
LINARINIC20=10 uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
LONICERINIC56=1uM; IC92=10uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
LUTEOLINIC50=0.45 uM rat*
LUTEOLINEC=3 ppmShin*, K.H., Chung, M.S., Chae, Y.J., Yoon, K.Y., Cho, T.S. 1992. A survey for aldose reductase inhibition of herbal medicines. Fitoterapia 64(2): 130, 1993.
LUTEOLIN-7-GLUCOSIDEIC73=10 uM*
LUTEOLIN-7-GLUCOSIDEIC31=1 uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
LUTEOLIN-7-GLUCURONIDEIC68=1 uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
LUTEOLIN-7-GLUCURONIDEIC88=10 uM*
LUTEOLIN-7-O-BETA-D-GLUCOPYRANOSIDURONIC-ACIDIC50=3.1 uM ratYoshikawa, M., et al. 1999. Medicinal Flowers. I. Aldose Reductase Inhibitors and Three New Eudesmane-Type Sesquiterpenes, Kikkanols A, B, and C, From the Flowers of Chrysanthemum inducum L. Chem Pharm Bull, 47(3): 340-345.
MACROCARPAL-AIC50=10 uM*
MACROCARPAL-AIC50=2 uM*
MACROCARPAL-BIC50=2.8 uM*
MACROCARPAL-DIC50=2 uM*
MACROCARPAL-GIC50=2.7 uM*
MANDSHURIN10 ug/ml cowOkada,Y,et al.1995.Search for Naturally Occurring Substances to Prevent the Complications of Diabetes.II.Inhibitory Effect of Coumarin and Flavonoid Derivatives on Bovine Lens Aldose Reductase and Rabbit Platelet Aggregation.Chem Pharm Bull43(8):1385-1387
MANIFLAVONE--Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
MATTEUORIENATE-AIC50=1 uMBasnet, P., Kadota, S., Hase, K., Namba, T. 1995. Five New C-Methyl Flavonoids, the Potent Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Matteuccia orientalis TREV. Chem Pharm Bull, 43(9): 1558-1564.
MATTEUORIENATE-BIC50=1 uMBasnet, P., Kadota, S., Hase, K., Namba, T. 1995. Five New C-Methyl Flavonoids, the Potent Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Matteuccia orientalis TREV. Chem Pharm Bull, 43(9): 1558-1564.
MATTEUORIENATE-CIC50=2.3 uMBasnet, P., Kadota, S., Hase, K., Namba, T. 1995. Five New C-Methyl Flavonoids, the Potent Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Matteuccia orientalis TREV. Chem Pharm Bull, 43(9): 1558-1564.
MEARNSITRINIC50=1.4 uMYoshikawa, M., et al. 1998. Antidiabetic Principles of Natural Medicines. II. Aldose Reductase and Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors from Brazilian Natural Medicine, the Leaves of Myrcia multiflora DC. (....). Chem Pharm Bull, 46(1): 113-119.
METHYL-ALPHA-D-GALACTOSIDE0.1 mM/l rat (weak activity)Fujita, T., Ohira, K., Miyatake, K., Nakano, Y., Nakayama, M. 1995. Inhibitory Effect of Perillosides A and C, Related Monoterpene Glucosides on Aldose Reductase and Their Structure-Activity Relationships. Chem Pharm Bull, 43(6): 920-926.
METHYL-SCUTELLAREINIC32=10uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
MORIN100 uMOliveira, T. T., Nagem, T. J., Miranda, L. C. G., Paula, V. F., Teixeira, M. A. 1997. Inhibitory Action on Aldose Reductase by Soybean Flavonoids. J Braz Chem Soc, 8(3): 211-213.
MYRCENE100 ug/mlOkamura, K., Iwakami, S., Matsunaga, T. 1992. Biological Activity of Monoterpenes from Trees. Toyama-Ken Yakuji Kenkyusho Nenpo, (20): 95-101.
MYRCIACITRIN-IIC50=3.2 uMYoshikawa, M., et al. 1998. Antidiabetic Principles of Natural Medicines. II. Aldose Reductase and Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors from Brazilian Natural Medicine, the Leaves of Myrcia multiflora DC. (....). Chem Pharm Bull, 46(1): 113-119.
MYRCIACITRIN-IIIC50=15 uMYoshikawa, M., et al. 1998. Antidiabetic Principles of Natural Medicines. II. Aldose Reductase and Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors from Brazilian Natural Medicine, the Leaves of Myrcia multiflora DC. (....). Chem Pharm Bull, 46(1): 113-119.
MYRCIAPHENONE-BIC50=29 uMYoshikawa, M., et al. 1998. Antidiabetic Principles of Natural Medicines. II. Aldose Reductase and Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors from Brazilian Natural Medicine, the Leaves of Myrcia multiflora DC. (....). Chem Pharm Bull, 46(1): 113-119.
MYRICETIN-3-O-(4''-ACETYL)-ALPHA-FUCOSIDEIC50=10.7 uMHaraguchi, H., Kanada, M., Fukuda, A., Naruse, K., Okamura, N., Yagi, A. 1998. An Inhibitor of Aldose Reductase and Sorbitol Accumulation from Anthocepharus chinensis. Planta Med, 64(1): 68-69.
MYRICETIN-3-O-(4''-ACETYL)-ALPHA-FUCOSIDEIC50=17.9 uMHaraguchi, H., Kanada, M., Fukuda, A., Naruse, K., Okamura, N., Yagi, A. 1998. An Inhibitor of Aldose Reductase and Sorbitol Accumulation from Anthocepharus chinensis. Planta Med, 64(1): 68-69.
MYRICITRINIC50=3.8 uMYoshikawa, M., et al. 1998. Antidiabetic Principles of Natural Medicines. II. Aldose Reductase and Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors from Brazilian Natural Medicine, the Leaves of Myrcia multiflora DC. (....). Chem Pharm Bull, 46(1): 113-119.
NARINGENIN1 ug/mLAida, K., Tawata, M., Shindo, H., Onaya, T., Sasaki, H., Yamaguchi, T., Chin, M.(Chen, Z.), and Mitsuhashi, H. 1989. Isoliquiritigenin: A New Aldose Reductase Inhibitor from Glycyrrhizae Radix. Planta Medica 56(3): 254-258.
NARINGENINIC78=10 uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
NARINGENIN100 uMOliveira, T. T., Nagem, T. J., Miranda, L. C. G., Paula, V. F., Teixeira, M. A. 1997. Inhibitory Action on Aldose Reductase by Soybean Flavonoids. J Braz Chem Soc, 8(3): 211-213.
NARINGENINIC25=1 uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
NARINGIN--Werbach, M. 1993. Healing with Food. Harper Collins, New York, 443 pp.
NELUMBOSIDEIC32=1uM; IC64=10uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
NEOASTILBIN60 uM pigHaraguchi, H., Ohmi, I., Masuda, H., Tamura, Y., Mizutani, K., Tanaka, O., Chou, W. H. 1996. Inhibition of Aldose Reductase by Dihydroflavonols in Engelhardtia chrysolepis and Effects on Other Enzymes. Experientia, 52(6): 564-567.
NEPETINED50=1 uM*
NEPETRINED50=1-10 uM*
NEROLIDOL--*
NEVADENSIN10 uMOkuda, I., Muwa, B., Inagakat, K., Horie, T., Nakayama, M. 1982. Inhibition of Aldose Reductases from Rat and Bovine Lenses by Flavonoids. Biochem Pharmacol, 31(23): 3807-3822.
ORAPOSIDEIC50=0.15 uMAndary, C. Caffeic Acid Glycoside Esters and Pharmacology. Polyphenolic Phenom, 1993: 237-245.
OROXYLIN-AIC50=52 uM ratShin, K. H., Chae, Y. J., Chung, M. S., Lee, H. J. 1994. Effect of Flavonoids from Scutellariae radix on Cataract Formation and Polyol Accumulation in Rat Lens. Korean J Pharmacog, 25(1): 41-46.
OXYAYANIN-AIC27=10uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
P-COUMARIC-ACID4 ug/ml (weak activity)Ichikawa, K., et al. 1991. Isolation and Structure Determination of Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Traditional Thai Medicine, and Syntheses of Their Derivatives. Sankyo Kenkyusho Nempo, 43: 99-110.
PECTOLINARIGENINIC25=10 uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
PECTOLINARINIC42=10 uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
PENTABROMOPROPEN-2-YL-DIBROMO-ACETATE4 ug/mlSugano, M., Sato, A., Nagaki, H., Yoshioka, S., Shiraki, T., Horikoshi, H. 1990. Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from the Red Alga, Asparagopsis taxiformis. Tetrahedron Lett, 31(48): 7015-7016.
PENTABROMOPROPEN-2-YL-TRIBROMO-ACETATE4 ug/mlSugano, M., Sato, A., Nagaki, H., Yoshioka, S., Shiraki, T., Horikoshi, H. 1990. Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from the Red Alga, Asparagopsis taxiformis. Tetrahedron Lett, 31(48): 7015-7016.
PERILLOSIDE-A0.1 mM/l ratFujita, T., Ohira, K., Miyatake, K., Nakano, Y., Nakayama, M. 1995. Inhibitory Effect of Perillosides A and C, Related Monoterpene Glucosides on Aldose Reductase and Their Structure-Activity Relationships. Chem Pharm Bull, 43(6): 920-926.
PERILLOSIDE-A0.1 mM/l hmn (weak activity)Fujita, T., Ohira, K., Miyatake, K., Nakano, Y., Nakayama, M. 1995. Inhibitory Effect of Perillosides A and C, Related Monoterpene Glucosides on Aldose Reductase and Their Structure-Activity Relationships. Chem Pharm Bull, 43(6): 920-926.
PERILLOSIDE-B0.1 mM/l ratFujita, T., Ohira, K., Miyatake, K., Nakano, Y., Nakayama, M. 1995. Inhibitory Effect of Perillosides A and C, Related Monoterpene Glucosides on Aldose Reductase and Their Structure-Activity Relationships. Chem Pharm Bull, 43(6): 920-926.
PERILLOSIDE-C0.1 mM/l hmn (weak activity)Fujita, T., Ohira, K., Miyatake, K., Nakano, Y., Nakayama, M. 1995. Inhibitory Effect of Perillosides A and C, Related Monoterpene Glucosides on Aldose Reductase and Their Structure-Activity Relationships. Chem Pharm Bull, 43(6): 920-926.
PERILLOSIDE-C0.1 mM/l ratFujita, T., Ohira, K., Miyatake, K., Nakano, Y., Nakayama, M. 1995. Inhibitory Effect of Perillosides A and C, Related Monoterpene Glucosides on Aldose Reductase and Their Structure-Activity Relationships. Chem Pharm Bull, 43(6): 920-926.
PERILLOSIDE-D0.1 mM/l ratFujita, T., Ohira, K., Miyatake, K., Nakano, Y., Nakayama, M. 1995. Inhibitory Effect of Perillosides A and C, Related Monoterpene Glucosides on Aldose Reductase and Their Structure-Activity Relationships. Chem Pharm Bull, 43(6): 920-926.
PROTOPINEIC50=38.5 uM ratAl-Khalil, S. 1996. Inhibition of Lens Alkaloids Reductase by Protopine Alkaloids. Saudi Pharm J, 4(1): 45-47.
PROTOPINE50 uMKubo, M., et al. 1994. Studies on Anti-cataract Drugs from Natural Sources. I. Effects of a Methanolic Extract and the Alkaloidal Components from Corydalis Tuber on in vit Aldose Reductase Activity. Biol Pharm Bull, 17(3): 458-459.
PRUNASIN0.1 mM/l ratFujita, T., Ohira, K., Miyatake, K., Nakano, Y., Nakayama, M. 1995. Inhibitory Effect of Perillosides A and C, Related Monoterpene Glucosides on Aldose Reductase and Their Structure-Activity Relationships. Chem Pharm Bull, 43(6): 920-926.
PUERARIN--*
QUERCETAGETINIC29=1 uM*
QUERCETAGETINIC71=10 uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
QUERCETIN100 uM*
QUERCETINIC50=0.84 ug/ml cowOkada,Y,et al.1995.Search for Naturally Occurring Substances to Prevent the Complications of Diabetes.II.Inhibitory Effect of Coumarin and Flavonoid Derivatives on Bovine Lens Aldose Reductase and Rabbit Platelet Aggregation.Chem Pharm Bull43(8):1385-1387
QUERCETIN4 ug/mlIchikawa, K., et al. 1991. Isolation and Structure Determination of Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Traditional Thai Medicine, and Syntheses of Their Derivatives. Sankyo Kenkyusho Nempo, 43: 99-110.
QUERCETINIC50=0.344 uMMao, X. M., Zhang, J. Q. 1993. Inhibition of Aldose Reductase by Extracts of Chinese Herbal Medicine. Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi , 18(10): 623-624.
QUERCIMERITRINIC44=10 uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
QUERCIMERITRINIC20=1 uM*
QUERCITRINIC50=2 uMTerashima, S., Shimizu, M., Nakayama, H., Ishikura, M., et al. 1990. Studies on Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Medicinal Plant of 'Sinfito,' Potentilla candicans, and Further Synthesis of Their Related Compounds. Chem. Pharm. Bull 38(10):2733-2736, 1990
QUERCITRIN0.1-100 uM*
QUERCITRINIC50=64 uM ratAl-Khalil, S. 1996. Inhibition of Lens Alkaloids Reductase by Protopine Alkaloids. Saudi Pharm J, 4(1): 45-47.
QUERCITRINIC55=0.1 uM*
QUERCITRINIC55=0.15 uM*
QUERCITRIN0.5-4 ug/ml*
QUERCITRYL-2'-ACETATEIC87=0.1uMAida, K., Tawata, M., Shindo, H., Onaya, T., Sasaki, H., Yamaguchi, T., Chin, M.(Chen, Z.), and Mitsuhashi, H. 1989. Isoliquiritigenin: A New Aldose Reductase Inhibitor from Glycyrrhizae Radix. Planta Medica 56(3): 254-258.
RESORCINOL909.1 uMToyomizu, M., Sugiyama, S., Jin, R. L., Nakatsu, T. 1993. Alpha-Glucosidase and Aldose Reductase Inhibitors: Constituents of Cashew, Anacardium occidentale, Nut Shell Liquids. Phytotherapy Research, 7(3): 252-254.
REYNOUTRINIC71=10 uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
REYNOUTRINIC34=1 uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
RHAMNETINIC57=10 uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
RHAMNETINIC23=1 uM*
RHAMNOCITRIN10 ug/ml cowOkada,Y,et al.1995.Search for Naturally Occurring Substances to Prevent the Complications of Diabetes.II.Inhibitory Effect of Coumarin and Flavonoid Derivatives on Bovine Lens Aldose Reductase and Rabbit Platelet Aggregation.Chem Pharm Bull43(8):1385-1387
RHOIFOLINIC32=10 uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
ROSMARINIC-ACID--*
RUTIN4 ug/mlIchikawa, K., et al. 1991. Isolation and Structure Determination of Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Traditional Thai Medicine, and Syntheses of Their Derivatives. Sankyo Kenkyusho Nempo, 43: 99-110.
RUTIN100 uM*
SALBOSTATINIC50=0.7 mMVertesy, L., Fehlhaber, H., Schulz, a. 1994. The Trehalase Inhibitor Salbostatin, a Novel Metabolite from Streptomyces albus, ATCC21838. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl, 33(18): 1844-1846.
SALFREDIN-A-4--Matsumoto, K., et al. 1995. Salfredins, New Aldose Reductase Inhibitors Produced by Crucibulum sp. RF-3817. I. Fermentation, Isolation and Structures of Salfredins. J Antibiot, 48(6): 439-446.
SALFREDIN-C-2--Matsumoto, K., et al. 1995. Salfredins, New Aldose Reductase Inhibitors Produced by Crucibulum sp. RF-3817. I. Fermentation, Isolation and Structures of Salfredins. J Antibiot, 48(6): 439-446.
SALICYLIC-ACID724.6 uMToyomizu, M., Sugiyama, S., Jin, R. L., Nakatsu, T. 1993. Alpha-Glucosidase and Aldose Reductase Inhibitors: Constituents of Cashew, Anacardium occidentale, Nut Shell Liquids. Phytotherapy Research, 7(3): 252-254.
SALVIANOLIC-ACID-A0.01 uM ratDu, G. H., Qiu, Y., Tian, Y. E., Zhang, J. T. 1995. Prevention of Galactose-Induced Cataractogenesis in Rats by Salvianolic Acid A. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao, 30(8): 561-566.
SAMBUNIGRIN0.1 mM/l rat (weak activity)Fujita, T., Ohira, K., Miyatake, K., Nakano, Y., Nakayama, M. 1995. Inhibitory Effect of Perillosides A and C, Related Monoterpene Glucosides on Aldose Reductase and Their Structure-Activity Relationships. Chem Pharm Bull, 43(6): 920-926.
SANGGENONE-C100 uMYamaguchi, T., Sato, J., Mihashi, H., Nomura, T. 1991. Aldose Reductase Inhibitors Containing Benzopyrans for Treatment of Diseases Associated with Diabetes. Patent, Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho-03 68,517. 9pp.
SAPPANCHALCONE0.1 uMMorota, T., Takeda, H., Sasaki, H., Sato, S. 1990. Aldose Reductase Inhibitors Containing Phenol of Caesalpinia sappan. Patent, Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho-02 264,718.
SCOPARONE10 ug/ml cowOkada,Y,et al.1995.Search for Naturally Occurring Substances to Prevent the Complications of Diabetes.II.Inhibitory Effect of Coumarin and Flavonoid Derivatives on Bovine Lens Aldose Reductase and Rabbit Platelet Aggregation.Chem Pharm Bull43(8):1385-1387
SCOPOLETINIC50=6.2 ug/ml cowOkada,Y,et al.1995.Search for Naturally Occurring Substances to Prevent the Complications of Diabetes.II.Inhibitory Effect of Coumarin and Flavonoid Derivatives on Bovine Lens Aldose Reductase and Rabbit Platelet Aggregation.Chem Pharm Bull43(8):1385-1387
SCUTELLAREINIC56=10uM; IC10=1uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
SIDERITOFLAVONE--*
SIDEROXYLONAL-AIC50=1.25 uMSatoh, H., Etoh, H., Watanobe, N., Kawagishi, H., Arai, K., Ina, K. Structures of Sideroxylonals from Eucalyptus sideroxylon. Chem Lett, 1992(10): 1917-1920.
SIDEROXYLONAL-BIC50=2.47 uMSatoh, H., Etoh, H., Watanobe, N., Kawagishi, H., Arai, K., Ina, K. Structures of Sideroxylonals from Eucalyptus sideroxylon. Chem Lett, 1992(10): 1917-1920.
SKULLCAPFLAVONE-II500 uM ratShin, K. H., Chae, Y. J., Chung, M. S., Lee, H. J. 1994. Effect of Flavonoids from Scutellariae radix on Cataract Formation and Polyol Accumulation in Rat Lens. Korean J Pharmacog, 25(1): 41-46.
SOPHORICOSIDEIC18=10uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
SORBARINIC70=10uM; IC14=1uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
SPIRAEOSIDEIC9=1 uM*
SPIRAEOSIDEIC51=10 uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
SUDACHIIN-A10 uMOkuda, I., Muwa, B., Inagakat, K., Horie, T., Nakayama, M. 1982. Inhibition of Aldose Reductases from Rat and Bovine Lenses by Flavonoids. Biochem Pharmacol, 31(23): 3807-3822.
SUDACHITIN10 uMOkuda, I., Muwa, B., Inagakat, K., Horie, T., Nakayama, M. 1982. Inhibition of Aldose Reductases from Rat and Bovine Lenses by Flavonoids. Biochem Pharmacol, 31(23): 3807-3822.
SUDACHITIN-7-O-BETA-D-GLUCOSIDE10 uMOkuda, I., Muwa, B., Inagakat, K., Horie, T., Nakayama, M. 1982. Inhibition of Aldose Reductases from Rat and Bovine Lenses by Flavonoids. Biochem Pharmacol, 31(23): 3807-3822.
SUGIOL--Tezuka, Y., Kasimu, R., Basnet, P., Namba, T., Kadota, S. 1997. Aldose Reductase Inhibitory Constituents of the Root of Salvia miltiorhiza Bunge. Chem Pharm Bull, 45(8): 1306-1311.
TANNIC-ACIDIC50=1.8 ug/mlSawada, H., Hamatake, M., Hara, A., Nakagawa, M., Nakayama, T. 1989. Inhibition of Human Placenta Aldose Reductase by Tannic Acid. Chem Pharm Bull, 37(6): 1662-1664.
TANSHINONE-IIC50=4.8 uM rat*
TANSHINONE-II-AIC50=1.14 uM rat*
TAXIFOLIN60 uM pigHaraguchi, H., Ohmi, I., Masuda, H., Tamura, Y., Mizutani, K., Tanaka, O., Chou, W. H. 1996. Inhibition of Aldose Reductase by Dihydroflavonols in Engelhardtia chrysolepis and Effects on Other Enzymes. Experientia, 52(6): 564-567.
THERMORUBINIC50=0.006 uM cowNakayama, M., et al. 1996. Thermorubin from Cultured Thermoactinomyces UAT-8 as Aldose Reductase Inhibitor and Pharmaceutical Compositions Containing Thermorubin for Diabetic Complications. Patent, Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho-08 59,462. 5pp.
THIAZOCIN-AIC50=0.455 uMOzasa, T., Yoneda, T., Hirasawa, M., Suzuki, K., Tanaka, K., Kadota, S., Iwanami, M. 1991. Thiazocins, New Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Actinosynnema sp. I. Fermentation, Isolation and Characterization. J Antibiot, 44(7): 768-773.
THIAZOCIN-BIC50=0.220 uMOzasa, T., Yoneda, T., Hirasawa, M., Suzuki, K., Tanaka, K., Kadota, S., Iwanami, M. 1991. Thiazocins, New Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Actinosynnema sp. I. Fermentation, Isolation and Characterization. J Antibiot, 44(7): 768-773.
THYMONIN10 uMOkuda, I., Muwa, B., Inagakat, K., Horie, T., Nakayama, M. 1982. Inhibition of Aldose Reductases from Rat and Bovine Lenses by Flavonoids. Biochem Pharmacol, 31(23): 3807-3822.
THYMUSIN10 uMOkuda, I., Muwa, B., Inagakat, K., Horie, T., Nakayama, M. 1982. Inhibition of Aldose Reductases from Rat and Bovine Lenses by Flavonoids. Biochem Pharmacol, 31(23): 3807-3822.
TRIFOLINIC19=1 uM*
TRIFOLINIC62=10 uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
UMBELLIFERONEIC50=4.8 ug/ml cowOkada,Y,et al.1995.Search for Naturally Occurring Substances to Prevent the Complications of Diabetes.II.Inhibitory Effect of Coumarin and Flavonoid Derivatives on Bovine Lens Aldose Reductase and Rabbit Platelet Aggregation.Chem Pharm Bull43(8):1385-1387
VANILLIC-ACID100 uM/l*
VERBASCOSIDEIC50=0.39-15.1 uM*
VITEXICARPIN100 uM/l*
VITEXIN5 ug/mlOkamot, Y., Yoshizawa, T. 1994. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Aldose Reductase Inhibitors Containing Passiflora quadraqularis Extracts or Vitexin. Patent, Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho-06,293,657. 4pp.
VITEXINIC15=10 uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
WARANGALONE10 uMIinuma, M., Tanaka, T., Mizuno, M., Katsuzaki, T., Ogawa, H. 1989. Structure-Activity Correlation of Flavonoids for Inhibition of Bovine Lens Aldose Reductase. Chem Pharm Bull, 37(7): 1813-1815.
WOGONINIC13=10uMShimizu, M., Ito, T., Terashima, S., Hayashi, T., Arisawa, M., Morita, N., Kurokawa, S., Ito, K., and Hashimoto, Y. 1984. Inhibition of Lens Aldose Reductase by Flavonoids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1885-1888.
WOGONINIC50=48 uM ratShin, K. H., Chae, Y. J., Chung, M. S., Lee, H. J. 1994. Effect of Flavonoids from Scutellariae radix on Cataract Formation and Polyol Accumulation in Rat Lens. Korean J Pharmacog, 25(1): 41-46.
WOGONIN-7-O-GLUCURONIDEIC50=40 uM ratShin, K. H., Chae, Y. J., Chung, M. S., Lee, H. J. 1994. Effect of Flavonoids from Scutellariae radix on Cataract Formation and Polyol Accumulation in Rat Lens. Korean J Pharmacog, 25(1): 41-46.
WOGONIN-7-O-GLUCURONIDE-METHYL-ESTERIC50=39 uM ratShin, K. H., Chae, Y. J., Chung, M. S., Lee, H. J. 1994. Effect of Flavonoids from Scutellariae radix on Cataract Formation and Polyol Accumulation in Rat Lens. Korean J Pharmacog, 25(1): 41-46.
XANTHOMICROL10 uMOkuda, I., Muwa, B., Inagakat, K., Horie, T., Nakayama, M. 1982. Inhibition of Aldose Reductases from Rat and Bovine Lenses by Flavonoids. Biochem Pharmacol, 31(23): 3807-3822.