Chemical Dosage References
(+)-TETRANDRINE10 uMPang, L. H., Hoult, J. R. S. 1997. Cytotoxicity to Macrophages of Tetrandrine, an Antisilicosis Alkaloid, Accompanied by an Overproduction of Prostaglandins. Biochem Pharmacol, 53(6): 773-782.
(-)-MELLEINIC50=340 uMPongprayoon, U. 1991. Pharmacognostic Studies on the Thai Medicinal Plant Ipomoea pes-caprae (L.) R.BR. (Pak Bung Ta Lae). Acta Pharm Nordica, 3(3). 186 pp.
(1S-2-TRANS-4R-6R-7-TRANS)-CEMBRA-2,7,12-(20-TRIENE-4,6,11-TRIOL)IC50=13 mMOlsson, E., Holth, A., Kumlin, E., Bohlin, L., Wahlberg, I. 1993. Structure-Related Inhibiting Activity of some Tobacco Cembranoids on the Prostaglandin Synthesis in vitro. Planta Medica, 59(4): 293-295.
(1S-2-TRANS-4R-6R-7-TRANS-11-TRANS)-CEMBRA-2,7,11-TRIENE-4,6-DIOLIC50=0.39 mMOlsson, E., Holth, A., Kumlin, E., Bohlin, L., Wahlberg, I. 1993. Structure-Related Inhibiting Activity of some Tobacco Cembranoids on the Prostaglandin Synthesis in vitro. Planta Medica, 59(4): 293-295.
(1S-2-TRANS-4S-6R-7-TRANS)-CEMBRA-2,7,12-(20-TRIENE-4,6,11-TRIOL)IC50=2.7 mMOlsson, E., Holth, A., Kumlin, E., Bohlin, L., Wahlberg, I. 1993. Structure-Related Inhibiting Activity of some Tobacco Cembranoids on the Prostaglandin Synthesis in vitro. Planta Medica, 59(4): 293-295.
(1S-2-TRANS-4S-6R-7-TRANS-11-TRANS)-CEMBRA-2,7,11-TRIENE-4,6-DIOLIC50=0.36 mMOlsson, E., Holth, A., Kumlin, E., Bohlin, L., Wahlberg, I. 1993. Structure-Related Inhibiting Activity of some Tobacco Cembranoids on the Prostaglandin Synthesis in vitro. Planta Medica, 59(4): 293-295.
(2S)-5-METHOXY-6-METHYLFLAVAN-7-OL50 uMTsai, W.J., Hsieh, H.T., Chen, C.C., Kuo, Y.C., Chen, C.F. 1998. Characterization of the Antiplatelet Effects of (2S)-5-methoxy-6-methylflavan-7-ol from Draconis resina.
1,2,4-TRIHYDROXY-BENZENEIC50=900 uMAlanko, J., et al. 1999. Modulation of Arachidonic Acid Metabolism by Phenols: Relation to their Structure and Antioxidant/Proooxidant Properties. Free Radical Biol Med, 26(1/2): 193-201.
1,3,5-TRIHYDROXY-BENZENEIC50=45 uMAlanko, J., et al. 1999. Modulation of Arachidonic Acid Metabolism by Phenols: Relation to their Structure and Antioxidant/Proooxidant Properties. Free Radical Biol Med, 26(1/2): 193-201.
2-HYDROXY-4,4,7-TRIMETHYL-(4H)-NAPHTHALEN-1-ONEIC50=230 uMPongprayoon, U. 1991. Pharmacognostic Studies on the Thai Medicinal Plant Ipomoea pes-caprae (L.) R.BR. (Pak Bung Ta Lae). Acta Pharm Nordica, 3(3). 186 pp.
3,3',7-TRIMETHYL-ETHER-6-C-METHYLQUERCETINIC50=4.5 uMIbewuike, J. C., Ogungbamila, F. O., Ogundaini, A. O., Okeke, I. N., Bohlin, L. 1997. Antiinflammatory and Antibacterial Activities of C-methylflavonol from Piliostigma thonningii. Phytotherapy Research, 11(4): 281-284.
3,7-DIMETHYL-ETHER-6,8-DI-C-METHYLKAEMPFEROL20 ug/mlIbewuike, J. C., Ogungbamila, F. O., Ogundaini, A. O., Okeke, I. N., Bohlin, L. 1997. Antiinflammatory and Antibacterial Activities of C-methylflavonol from Piliostigma thonningii. Phytotherapy Research, 11(4): 281-284.
3,7-DIMETHYL-ETHER-6,8-DI-C-METHYLQUERCETIN20 ug/mlIbewuike, J. C., Ogungbamila, F. O., Ogundaini, A. O., Okeke, I. N., Bohlin, L. 1997. Antiinflammatory and Antibacterial Activities of C-methylflavonol from Piliostigma thonningii. Phytotherapy Research, 11(4): 281-284.
3,7-DIMETHYL-ETHER-6-C-METHYLQUERCETINIC50=25.9 uMIbewuike, J. C., Ogungbamila, F. O., Ogundaini, A. O., Okeke, I. N., Bohlin, L. 1997. Antiinflammatory and Antibacterial Activities of C-methylflavonol from Piliostigma thonningii. Phytotherapy Research, 11(4): 281-284.
3-METHYL-ETHER-6,8-DI-C-METHYLKAEMPFEROL40 ug/mlIbewuike, J. C., Ogungbamila, F. O., Ogundaini, A. O., Okeke, I. N., Bohlin, L. 1997. Antiinflammatory and Antibacterial Activities of C-methylflavonol from Piliostigma thonningii. Phytotherapy Research, 11(4): 281-284.
3-METHYL-ETHER-6,8-DI-C-METHYLQUERCETINIC50=23 uMIbewuike, J. C., Ogungbamila, F. O., Ogundaini, A. O., Okeke, I. N., Bohlin, L. 1997. Antiinflammatory and Antibacterial Activities of C-methylflavonol from Piliostigma thonningii. Phytotherapy Research, 11(4): 281-284.
3-METHYL-ETHER-6-C-METHYLQUERCETINIC50=55.4 uMIbewuike, J. C., Ogungbamila, F. O., Ogundaini, A. O., Okeke, I. N., Bohlin, L. 1997. Antiinflammatory and Antibacterial Activities of C-methylflavonol from Piliostigma thonningii. Phytotherapy Research, 11(4): 281-284.
3-METHYLQUERCETIN50 ug/ml rbtLackeman, G. M., Claeys, M., Rwangabo, P. C., Herman, A. G., Vlietinck, A. J. 1986. Cardiovascular Effects of 3-methylquercetin. Planta Medica, 52(6): 433-437.
4-VINYL-GUAIACOLIC50=18 uM*
6-(3-CARBOXY-BUT-2-ENYL)-7-HYDROXYCOUMARIN1.3 ug/ml rbtHiermann, A., Schantl, D. 1998. Antiphlogistic and Antipyretic Activity of Peucedanum ostruthium. Planta Medica, 64(5): 400-403.
6-GINGEROL1 mM (60.7% inhibition)*
8-BETA-17-EPOXY-LABD-TRANS-12-ENE-15,16-DIALIC50=100 uMKawakishi, S., Morimitsu, Y., Osawa, T. 1994. Chemistry of Ginger Components and Inhibitory Factors of the Arachidonic Acid Cascade. ASC Symp Ser, 547: 244-250.
AESCULETIN100 uM rbtHung, H.C., Lai, M.W., Wang, H.R., Chung, Y.L., Hsieh, L.M., Chen, C.C. 1993. Antiproliferative Effect of Esculetin on Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells: Possible Roles of Signal Transduction Pathways. Eur J Pharmacol, 237(1): 39-44.
ALPHA-LINOLENIC-ACID39.5 g/day/hmnFerretti, A., Flanagan, V. P. 1996. Antithromboxane Activity of Dietary Alpha-linolenic Acid: A Pilot Study. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes Essential Fatty Acids, 54(6): 451-455. ARS, USDA.
ALPHITOLIC50=0.66 mMDunstan, C. A., Liu, B., Welch, C. J., Perera, P., Bohlin, L. 1998. Alphitol, a Phenolic Substance from Alphitonia zizyphoides which Inhibits Prostaglandin Biosynthesis in vitro. Phytochemistry, 48(3): 495-497.
ARNEBINONE20 ug/mlYao, X. S., et al. 1991. Biologically Active Constituents of Arnebia euchroma: Structure of Arnebinol, an Ansa-Type Monoterpenylbenzenoid with Inhibitory Activity on Prostaglandin Biosynthesis. Chem & Pharm Bull, 39(11): 2956-2961.
AVAROL3 ug/mlSchroder,H.C., Begin,E., Klocking,R., Matthes,E., Sarma,A.S., Gasic,M., Muller,W.E.G.1991.Avarol Restores the Altered Prostaglandin and Leukotriene Metabolism in Monocytes Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type I. Virus Research, 21(3):213-223.
BERBERASTINE25 mg/kg ivn rbtHuang, C. G., Chu, Z. L., Yang, Z. M. 1991. Effect of Berberine on Synthesis of Platelet TXA2 and Plasma PGI2 in Rabbits. Chung-Kuo Yao Li Hsueh Pao, 12(6): 526-528.
BERBERINE25 mg/kg ivn rbtHuang, C. G., Chu, Z. L., Yang, Z. M. 1991. Effect of Berberine on Synthesis of Platelet TXA2 and Plasma PGI2 in Rabbits. Chung-Kuo Yao Li Hsueh Pao, 12(6): 526-528.
BETULINIC50=119 uMHuang, C., Tunon, H., Bohlin, L. 1995. Anti-Inflammatory Compounds Isolated from Menyanthes trifoliata L. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao, 30(8): 621-626.
BETULINIC-ACIDIC50=101 uMHuang, C., Tunon, H., Bohlin, L. 1995. Anti-Inflammatory Compounds Isolated from Menyanthes trifoliata L. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao, 30(8): 621-626.
BETULINIC-ACID200 ug/mlDunstan, C. A., Liu, B., Welch, C. J., Perera, P., Bohlin, L. 1998. Alphitol, a Phenolic Substance from Alphitonia zizyphoides which Inhibits Prostaglandin Biosynthesis in vitro. Phytochemistry, 48(3): 495-497.
BOLDINE25 uM ratBackhouse, N., Delporte, C., Givernau, M., Cassels, B. K., Valenzuela, A., Speisky, H. 1994. Anti-Inflammatory and Antipyretic Effects of Boldine. Agents & Actions, 42(3/4): 114-117.
CAFFEIC-ACID-MALATEIC50=38 ug/mlObertreis, B., Giller, K., Teucher, T., Behnke, B., Schmitz, H. 1996. Antiphlogistic Effects of Urtica dioica folia Extract in Comparison to Caffeic Malic Acid. Arzneim-Forsch, 46(1): 52-56.
CURCUMIN0.2% diet ratRao, C. V., Rivenson, A., Simi, B., Reddy, B. S. 1995. Chemoprevention of Colon Carcinogenesis by Dietary Curcumin, a Naturally Occurring Plant Phenolic Compound. Cancer Research, 55(2): 259-266.
DIINSINIOLIC50=9.2 uM (weak activity)Ogundaini, A., Farah, M., Perera, P., Samuelsson, G., Bohlin, L. 1996. Isolation of two new Antiinflammatory Biflavanoids from Sarcophyte piriei. J Natural Products, 59(6): 587-590.
EMODINIC50=23 uM/mlMueller, S. O., Stopper, H. 1999. Characterization of the Genotoxicity of Anthraquinones in Mammalian Cells. Biochimica & Biophysica Acta, 1428: 406-414.
ENT-8-ALPHA-HYDROXY-LABDA-13(16),14-DIENEIC50=3 uM musDe Las Heras, B., Hoult, J. R. S. 1994. Non-Cytotoxic Inhibition of Macrophage Eicosanoid Biosynthesis and Effects on Leukocyte Functions and Reactive Oxygen Species of two Novel-Anti-Inflammatory Plant Diterpenoids. Planta Medica, 60(6): 501-506.
EUGENOL1 mM rbtChen, S. J., Wang, M. H., Chen, I. J. 1996. Antiplatelet and Calcium Inhibitory Properties of Eugenol and Sodium Eugenol Acetate. Gen Pharmacol, 27(4): 629-633.
EUGENOLIC50=9.2 uM*
EUGENOL-ACETATE1 mM rbtChen, S. J., Wang, M. H., Chen, I. J. 1996. Antiplatelet and Calcium Inhibitory Properties of Eugenol and Sodium Eugenol Acetate. Gen Pharmacol, 27(4): 629-633.
FALCARINOL--Fujimoto, Y., et al. 1998. Inhibition of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenase Activity in Rabbit Gastric Antral Mucosa by Panaxynol Isolated from Oriental Medicines. J Pharmacy & Pharmacology, 50(9): 1075-1078.
FERULIC-ACID0.58-3.2 mMXu, L. N., Yu, W. G., Tian, J. Y., Liu, Q. Y. 1990. Effect of Sodium Ferulate on Arachidonic Acid Metabolism. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao, 25(6): 412-416.
GALLIC-ACID-PROPYL-ESTERIC50=100 uMAlanko, J., et al. 1999. Modulation of Arachidonic Acid Metabolism by Phenols: Relation to their Structure and Antioxidant/Proooxidant Properties. Free Radical Biol Med, 26(1/2): 193-201.
GINSENOSIDE-RC500 ug/mlPark, C. W. 1992. The Effects of Ginseng Components on Arachidonic Acid Metabolism. Korean J Ginseng Science, 16(1): 69-71.
GLAUCOCALYXIN-A10 uM rbtZhang, B., Long, K., Jiang, Y. Y. 1992. Effects of Glaucocalyxin a on PAF Biosynthesis and Arachidonic Acid Metabolism in Washed Rabbit Platelets. Zhongguo Yaolixue ye Dulixue Zazhi, 6(1): 52-55.
GLYCYRRHIZIN100 mg/kg igs musRen, J., Cheng, J. X., Wang, Z. G. 1988. Effects of Ammonium Glycyrrhizinate on the Synthesis of Prostaglandins E2 and F2-alpha. K'o Hsueh T'ung Pao, (3): 227-229.
GOSSYPOL8.4-380 nMXiao, D. M., Wang, X. L., Zhang, J. B., Chen, H. C. 1991. Effects of Gossypol of Phorbol Ester-Calcimycin-induced Prostaglandin Synthesis by Macrophages. Chin Med J, 104(4): 321-325.
GUAIACOLIC50=57 uMAlanko, J., et al. 1999. Modulation of Arachidonic Acid Metabolism by Phenols: Relation to their Structure and Antioxidant/Proooxidant Properties. Free Radical Biol Med, 26(1/2): 193-201.
LABDA-TRANS-8(17)-12-DIENE-15-16-DIALIC50=100 uMKawakishi, S., Morimitsu, Y., Osawa, T. 1994. Chemistry of Ginger Components and Inhibitory Factors of the Arachidonic Acid Cascade. ASC Symp Ser, 547: 244-250.
MYRICETIN-3-O-BETA-D-GLUCURONIDE1 ug rbtHiermann, A., Schramm, H. W., Laufer, S. 1998. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Myricetin-3--O-beta-d-glucuronide and Related Compounds. Inflamm. Res., 47(11): 421-427.
NORATHYRIOLIC50=29.1 mg/kg ipr musWang, J. P., Ho, T. F., Lin, C. N., Tang, C. M. 1994. Effect of Norathryiol, Isolated from Tripterospermum lanceolatum, on A23 187-Induced Pleurisy and Analgesia in Mice. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch Pharmacol, 350(1): 90-95.
OLEANOLIC-ACIDigs mus*
P-COUMARIC-ACID--*
PYROGALLOLIC50=900 uMAlanko, J., et al. 1999. Modulation of Arachidonic Acid Metabolism by Phenols: Relation to their Structure and Antioxidant/Proooxidant Properties. Free Radical Biol Med, 26(1/2): 193-201.
QUERCETIN40 ug/mlIbewuike, J. C., Ogungbamila, F. O., Ogundaini, A. O., Okeke, I. N., Bohlin, L. 1997. Antiinflammatory and Antibacterial Activities of C-methylflavonol from Piliostigma thonningii. Phytotherapy Research, 11(4): 281-284.
SALIPURPOSIDEIC50=13.14 uMOgundaini, A., Farah, M., Perera, P., Samuelsson, G., Bohlin, L. 1996. Isolation of two new Antiinflammatory Biflavanoids from Sarcophyte piriei. J Natural Products, 59(6): 587-590.
SHIKONOFURAN-B20 ug/ml (72% inhibition)Yao, X. S., et al. 1991. Biologically Active Constituents of Arnebia euchroma: Structure of Arnebinol, an Ansa-Type Monoterpenylbenzenoid with Inhibitory Activity on Prostaglandin Biosynthesis. Chem & Pharm Bull, 39(11): 2956-2961.
SHIKONOFURAN-C20 ug/ml (72% inhibition)Yao, X. S., et al. 1991. Biologically Active Constituents of Arnebia euchroma: Structure of Arnebinol, an Ansa-Type Monoterpenylbenzenoid with Inhibitory Activity on Prostaglandin Biosynthesis. Chem & Pharm Bull, 39(11): 2956-2961.
SINOMENINEIC50=1 mMLiu, L, Riese, J., Resch, K., Kaever, V. 1994. Impairment of Macrophage Eicosanoid and Nitric Oxide Production by an Alkaloid from Sinomenium acutum. Arzneim-Forsch, 44(11): 1223-1226.
TANSHINONEigs rbtLi, X. H., Tang, R. 1991. Relationship Between Inhibitory Action of Tanshinone on Neutrophil Function and its Prophylactic Effects on Myocardial Infarction. Chung-Kuo Yao Li Hsueh Pao, 12(3): 269-272.
THAPSIGARGIN1 uMMacArthur, H., Hecker, M., Busse, R., Vane, J. R. 1993. Selective Inhibition of Agonist-Induced but not Shear Stress-Dependent Release of Endothelial Autacoids by Thapsigargin. Brit J Pharmacol, 108(1): 100-105.